According to Hilliard himself, Elizabeth wanted her portraits painted in an almost shadowless style. They are not so much likenesses as symbolic representations of the monarch, emphasising her rich costumes and jewellery. Here the jewel above Elizabeth's hand is a phoenix. This mythical, unique bird, reborn out of fire, alludes to the unmarried Queen's virginity. Elizabeth holds a rose, once associated with the Virgin Mary, but also an emblem of the Tudor dynasty. Hilliard became the Queen's painter after 1570, working mainly in miniature. The present portrait relates to his miniature of Elizabeth of 1572 (National Portrait Gallery) reproduced on the wall panel nearby.