is one of a series of of animals that were Meadows’s principal work in the 1950s, including Spring ‘Seasons’ Cock,
) and Startled Bird,
1955, (Tate T07907
). His interest in this followed a commission in 1954 from the Hertfordshire Director of Education to create a sculpture for a new school to be built in London Colney, near St Albans. The result was a cockerel which, although nearly double life size, was startlingly naturalistic. The success of the venture led to his exploration of the formal possibilities of sculpture based on animals. In the following years sculptures of birds (usually cockerels) and crabs dominated Meadows’ output. Alan Bowness explained that it was ‘not so much that he was interested in animals for their own sakes, but as vehicles for the human figure. These animal sculptures carry an emotional charge that is immediately translatable into human terms’ (Bowness, p.12).
At the British Pavilion in the 1952 Venice Biennale Meadows exhibited three sculptures; one cock, and two crabs. The critic Herbert Read (1893-1968) commented in the catalogue that his works were characterised by a ‘ fantasy; from an animal form, a cock or a crab, he will elaborate a vortex in which the animal’s virtue is caught as in a snare’ (Read, unpaginated). In his catalogue introduction Read famously described the sculptures by Meadows and his contemporaries as ‘excoriated flesh, frustrated sex, the ’ (Read, unpaginated). Meadows was able to achieve this sense of tension in his sculpture partly as a result of the technique he had learnt from Anne Severs, a student at the Bath Academy of Art at Corsham Court. She introduced him to the process whereby a sculpture was roughed out in on an armature and, when this had dried, the final form was modelled in further plaster which was wet enough to be malleable but dry enough to adhere. When tacky the plaster could be worked with a knife and with time could be carved. This resulted in the distinctive highly textured surfaces of much of Meadows’ work.
Meadows explained that his work was ‘all about the human condition. The crabs, and the birds, and the armed figures, the pointing figures, are all about fear ... perhaps not fear, it’s vulnerability’ (Interview with Tamsyn Woollcombe, Artists’ Lives, November 1992, Tate Gallery Archive, TAV415A). With Fallen bird this fear and vulnerability is communicated through the spiky, elongated forms of the bird which has fallen on to the ground, its legs upright and disjointed. The hollow, open mouth recalls Francis Bacon’s (1909-92) Three Studies for Figures at the Base of a Crucifixion, 1944 (Tate N06171)
which was exhibited in 1945 at the Lefevre Gallery in London. The sculpture also recalls Elisabeth Frink’s (1930-93) sculptures of birds. Frink, who was taught by Meadows at the Chelsea School of Art while she was a student there between 1949 and 1953, produced many animal sculptures on the theme of death, including Dead Cat (1954), Dead Rabbit (1954) and Dead Hen (1956).
Herbert Read, ‘New Aspects of British Sculpture’, Exhibition of Works by Sutherland, Wadsworth, Adams, Armitage, Butler, Chadwick, Clarke, Meadows, Moore, Paolozzi, Turnbull, exhibition catalogue, British Council, London 1952
Alan Bowness, Bernard Meadows: Sculpture and Drawings, London 1995, reproduced pl.34, p.55