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Shortly before his second trip to Italy
in 1828, Turner completed a watercolour of the celebrated view over Florence
from the church of San Miniato, on the other side of the River Arno. This is
a study for the finished work. Turner
used pencil sketches he had made more than eight years earlier to set out the basic composition. He then used this study as a guide when producing the finished watercolour, changing only certain details.
There are at least two versions of the completed watercolour, so Turner may have referred to this study in order to repeat his design.