Sir John Everett Millais, Bt, 'Christ in the House of His Parents ('The Carpenter's Shop')' 1849-50
Sir John Everett Millais, Bt
Christ in the House of His Parents ('The Carpenter's Shop') 1849-50
Oil on canvas
support: 864 x 1397 mm
frame: 1590 x 1873 x 141 mm
Purchased with assistance from the Art Fund and various subscribers 1921

Paintings by the Pre-Raphaelites are amongst the best-loved in Tate’s collection. But they were not always considered to be uncomplicatedly beautiful images – on the contrary, when they were first painted in the mid 19th century they were regarded as assaults on the eye, objectionable in terms of their realism and morally shocking.

Charles Dickens was one deprecator. He described the figure of the Virgin Mary in John Everett Millais’s Christ in the House of His Parents as a degenerate type, one who was ‘horrible in her ugliness’.

Whereas other artists tended to idealise religious figures, the Pre-Raphaelites painted them with unprecedented realism, attending to peculiarities of physiognomy and character, so people read them in terms of the model rather than in terms of the person that particular model was impersonating. Sometimes the artist’s approach was considered sacrilegious or even blasphemous, as was the case with Millais’s Christ in the House of His Parents.

The artists used bright colours so their pictures stood out against other works in an exhibition, demanding people’s attention. The Pre-Raphaelites were self-publicists, seeking controversy and attention.

A lot of the themes they chose to depict were quite daring for the time – including problematic subjects such as poverty, emigration, prostitution and the double standard of sexual morality in society. Their pictures require a lot of concentrated reading and are so densely encoded with signs and symbols that you have to work hard at deciphering them.

William Holman Hunt, 'The Awakening Conscience' 1853
William Holman Hunt
The Awakening Conscience 1853
Oil on canvas
support: 762 x 559 mm
frame: 1060 x 857 x 97 mm
Presented by Sir Colin and Lady Anderson through the Friends of the Tate Gallery 1976

A good example is The Awakening Conscience by William Holman Hunt. At first glance this could be seen to represent a young married couple or perhaps a brother and sister playing a game. However on closer inspection the different signs cohere to suggest a narrative of fall and possible redemption. The woman is presented in a state if half dress and isn’t wearing a wedding ring, which would imply that she is the man’s mistress. His fallen glove hints at her fate as a discarded mistress, but the light falling into the room from the garden suggests salvation.

What do you think about Pre-Raphaelite paintings? Do you think they are still jarring to the eye? Do the social messages within them come across? You can find lots of images at Tate’s Pinterest page, or join the discussion on Tate’s Facebook page or @Tate on Twitter - please use the tag #PreRaph.

Travel to Russia in July 2013, and visit the Pre-Raphaelites at Moscow’s Pushkin Museum in the company of co-curator Dr Jason Rosenfeld. For more information please visit the Tate Travels page.


Everything what disguises uncomfortable subjects under mesmerizing beauty stirs and sometimes can even shock. Pre-Raphaelites depicted religious and moral themes through full-bodied characters. Religion meant 'passion' for them and vice versa: desires were strongly bound to the sacrum. It can be also observed in the art of Mat Collishaw, where he places sexuality and religion/ morality and consumption next to each other, often giving them a mesmerizing appearance.