Anoxia and Microfading: The Impact on Collection Care – Part 1: Nigel Llewellyn
Introduction: Professor Nigel Llewellyn, Head of Research, Tate, London
Anoxia and Microfading: The Impact on Collection Care: video recordings of a past Tate Research conference. Introduction: Professor Nigel Llewellyn, Head of Research, Tate, London
Anoxia and Microfading: The Impact on Collection Care – Part 2: David Grattan
Keynote Speaker: Dr David Grattan, Former Manager of Conservation Research at Canadian Conservation Institute, Ottawa. ‘Anoxia and Microfading: The Impact on Collection Care, Context and Challenge’
The context in which museums exist is rapidly changing. Rising energy costs, increasing concerns about environmental change, demographic and societal changes etc. are altering the way they operate. We must therefore ask, how can microfading and anoxia be most effectively deployed? In the particular context of the Tate Gallery, both technologies form part of the broader topic of lighting, which has recently re-emerged as being a focus of discussion as more economic lighting is introduced.
Scientific validity is also a concern – there are questions about microfading and anoxia which should be resolved. Does anoxia prevent fading? What are appropriate oxygen levels? How long do enclosures survive without maintenance? Microfading is perhaps even more challenging because of the difficulties posed by the measurement and quantification of light and the accurate prediction of fade or colour change.
Finally there is a question about the presence of a transparent glass barrier has on the exhibit? Does it alter the visitor experience? There needs to be a balance between the need to access objects and the need to preserve them. The dilemma is neatly summed up in Stefan Michalski’s elegant portrayal of the issue as ‘Seeing versus Saving’.
Dr David Grattan began his career as an industrial research chemist and ended it on retirement in February 2011 as Manager of Conservation Research at the Canadian Conservation Institute. David has contributed numerous conservation research papers – from waterlogged wood, to permanent paper to preventive conservation issues such as Isoperms. David has also been involved in a number of specific conservation projects such as the technical evaluation of Totem Poles at Nan-Sdins World Heritage site BC and the Fossil Forest on Axel Heiberg Island in the Canadian Arctic. David was instrumental in a key conference on the preservation of modern materials ‘Saving The Twentieth Century’, Ottawa in 1991. His activities in ICOM-CC include being Coordinator of the Waterlogged Organic Archaeological Materials Group, and of the Resins Group in the early 1980s and from 1996 to 2002 he served for two terms as Chair of the Directory Board.
Anoxia and Microfading: The Impact on Collection Care – Part 3: Stephen Hackney
Stephen Hackney, Senior Consultant for Conservation Science, Tate, London: ‘The Benefits of Sealed Enclosures for Works on Paper’
Enclosing an object by glazing and framing to protect it from agents of degradation has become the most important low intervention and readily reversible tool for conservation, particularly in the paper field. The list of benefits of a well designed frame include moisture control, UV protection, avoidance of direct handling, dirt and pollution exclusion, impact resistance and rigidity for the support.
Anoxic framing does not replace existing conservation methods, but it does attempt to address the lighting issue for some objects. A brief description of the Tate Anoxic project shows how such systems can be created and the challenges involved. An anoxic enclosure eliminates not only oxygen but all external gaseous pollution and can be used to reduce and precisely stabilise the level of moisture in an object. The sealed enclosure can be considered a controlled environment in which are generated the chemical and physical conditions that are most appropriate for the work of art inside.
The advantages of a sealed frame could be negated by volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by the frame or its contents, including a degrading work of art. Because an anoxic frame is hermetically sealed, any recently applied less volatile solvents or any degradation products emitted by the work of art are trapped until they are removed by reaction with a material inside. The design of an anoxic frame must therefore involve the choice of non-volatile and stable construction materials and include material to adsorb any VOCs generated.
Stephen Hackney, formerly the Manager, Conservation Science, Tate, 1986–2010, was responsible for science and research projects and the museum conservation environment at Tate. Before that, from 1972, he was a paintings conservator at the Tate Gallery. Since 1986 he led the research undertaken by the Conservation Department and the work of the Conservation Science section to provide technical and scientific support for the department. He has published widely and jointly edited two books on artists’ techniques. In the quest for better prevention of physical and chemical degradation of art objects, he has investigated novel solutions such as the development of anoxic frame enclosures for works on paper.
Current project: three year EU 7th Framework research on internally generated VOC pollution (MEMORI), November 2010–2012.
Other professional and academic activities: Member of the Board of Studies of the Courtauld Institute of Art, external examiner and advisor for Conservation PhDs; Member of the UK DCMS Science and Research Advisory Committee; Formerly Chair of UKIC (now ICON) and editor of The Conservator Journal.
Qualifications: BSc (Hons) in Chemistry and Physics, University of Manchester; studied Paintings Conservation at the Courtauld Institute of Art, London; ICON accredited conservator.
Anoxia and Microfading: The Impact on Collection Care – Part 4: Zane Cunningham
Zane Cunningham, Project Manager and Product Developer, Tate, London: ‘Designing Low Oxygen Frames’
Research into low oxygen frames and enclosures has been ongoing at Tate for a number of years. The latest stage of research has concentrated on developing a design of a low oxygen frame which will maintain a low oxygen concentration for a significant period of time, be cost effective to produce in quantity, be reusable, and integrate seamlessly into exhibition hanging processes.
This talk will discuss the design requirements and specifications for a low oxygen frame. Design details will be discussed and further development steps considered.
Zane Cunningham is the Product Developer responsible for the design, development and manufacture of the low oxygen frames being developed at Tate. Prior to this project, he worked as an Analysis Engineer, Manufacturing Liaison Engineer and Supplier Quality Manager in the automotive industry specialising in vehicle chassis technology. He gained his BEng Mechanical Engineering degree from The University of Greenwich in 2006 with specialisation in lean manufacturing and continuous improvement methodologies.
Anoxia and Microfading: The Impact on Collection Care – Part 5: Shin Maekawa
Dr Shin Maekawa, Senior Scientist, The Getty Conservation Institute, Los Angeles: ‘Getty’s Oxygen-Free Display and Storage Cases’
A design for an oxygen-free display case was developed at the Getty Conservation Institute (GCI) in 1987–9 and subsequently used for the Royal Mummy Collection in Egypt. The design and fabrication requirements have been refined over the years to maintain less than 0.1% oxygen concentration longer due to reduced oxygen leak rates, and successfully tested for a wide range of case volume, from less than 22 to 1,000 litres, in applications over twenty years. Oxygen-free cases, which utilise the GCI-design, encase the Constitution of India (Indian Parliament Library), the Royal Proclamation Charter for Hudson’s Bay Company (Toronto, Canada), the Declaration of Arbroath (National Archives of Scotland), and the first known photograph (University of Texas, Austin).
Recently, a comparative experiment on light-induced color fading was performed using two identical sample sets consisting of dry pigments, dyed textiles, organic and aniline-based dyes, gouaches and watercolors, fluorescent inks, and plant specimens, one in normal air and the other in an anoxic environment. They were exposed to light, approximately 17.5 Mlux-hours under controlled temperature and humidity conditions. The vast majority of the samples showed less color-change in the anoxic environment than the normal air.
Shin Maekawa is a senior scientist at the Getty Conservation Institute (GCI) in Los Angeles, California. He conducts research on control technologies for microenvironments of collections and environments in historic buildings. He also carries out environmental monitoring at archaeological sites for GCI field projects around the world.
Shin developed GCI’s hermetically sealed oxygen-free display and storage cases. These designs have subsequently been used for the display and storage of world well-known artefacts, including mummies, rare books and historical documents. He also led the way for the development of anoxic treatment methods for insect eradication of museum objects; he has published numerous articles on the subject.
Shin earned a BS in Applied Mechanics from the University of California, San Diego; an MS in Mechanical Engineering from the University of California, Los Angeles; and a PhD in Conservation Science from the Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music. He is a registered engineer in the state of California.
Anoxia and Microfading: The Impact on Collection Care – Part 6: Matija Strlic
Dr Matija Strlic, Senior Lecturer, Centre for Sustainable Heritage, University College London: ‘Hypoxic Storage of Organic Materials: Paper, Ink, Parchment, Photographs, Canvas’
Matija Strlic, Ann Fenech, Eva Menart, (University College London, Centre for Sustainable Heritage, London)
Marta Oriola, Gemma Campo (Universitat de Barcelona, Facultat de Belles Arts, Barcelona, Spain)
Alenka Mozir (University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Ljubljana, Slovenia)
In the recent years, the understanding of the effect of hypoxic storage of heritage materials of organic origin increased significantly. Hypoxia is beneficial for objects where oxidation is of primary concern. However, certain parallel degradation processes can reduce the benefits if leading to accumulation of volatile degradation products in the enclosure and some dyes are known to be susceptible to reduction.Therefore, the benefits of hypoxia during storage of organic heritage materials depend significantly on their composition. In moderately accelerated degradation experiments, hypoxia has been shown to have a beneficial effect of up to 30% increased stability for paper, parchment and canvas. However, if it is combined with removal of volatile degradation products using appropriate absorbents, significantly higher benefits can be achieved, leading to an almost doubled stability.
Matija Strlic is Senior Lecturer and Course Director of the MRes Heritage Science at the Centre for Sustainable Heritage, University College London. His research interest is in development of new scientific tools and methods of study of heritage collections and interactions with their environment. His research record includes coordination and cooperation in numerous UK Research Council and European Commission funded heritage science projects. He is currently involved in the Science and Heritage Programme projects ‘Collections Demography’ and ‘Heritage Smells!’, and 7th Framework ‘Popart’ and ‘TeACH’ projects. He was also the co-coordinator of the 8th EC Conference on Sustaining Europe’s Cultural Heritage in 2008, and is a member of the Editorial Board of Studies in Conservation and Editor of e-Preservation Science.
Anoxia and Microfading: The Impact on Collection Care – Part 7: Jacob Thomas
Jacob Thomas, Research Assistant, Kinetics of Heterogeneous Reactions Group, Jagiellonian University, Kraków: ‘Early 20th Century Pastel Drawings: An Anoxic Case?’
Jacob Thomas (Jagiellonian University, Department of Chemistry and National Museum in Kraków, Kraków, Poland)
Joanna Sobczyk, Anna Klisinskiej-Kopacz (National Museum in Kraków, Kraków, Poland)
Roman Golab, Tomasz Lojewski, Joanna Lojewska (Jagiellonian University, Department of Chemistry, Kraków, Poland)
The preservation and display of early 20th-century pastel drawings on coloured paper can present a challenge for institutions. The materials used in the preparation of early 20th century pastel drawings are often not stable. The paper is typically acidic and can contain appreciable quantities of ground wood pulp, making it susceptible to both hydrolysis and photo-initiated yellowing. Additionally, the dyes used to colour the paper present complex chemistries and can promote oxidative degradation pathways through the generation of reactive oxygen species, possibly resulting in both photo-tendering of the paper support and catalytic fading of dyes in admixture. Furthermore, these objects in museum collections often exhibit signs of advanced degradation, i.e. brittle and discoloured paper, as well as fading of colourants. At first glance, anoxic display seems to be a logical solution to enhance both the preservation of and access to these objects. Presented, will be a case study of several pastel drawings by the Polish artist Witkacy and a summary of the research findings from the Anoxic Project conducted by the National Museum in Kraków and the Jagiellonian University. This project produced: three micro-fadeometer designs, technical art history studies of several pastel drawings by Witkacy, digital reconstructions of severely faded drawings, the beginning of a mass spectral library of paper dyes, a library of micro-fadeometry library results of both historic and contemporary dyed papers under anoxic and ambient atmospheres and a frame design that can be used to construct either anoxic or sealed micro-climate cassettes.
Jacob Thomas is a research assistant in the Kinetics of Heterogeneous Reactions Group at the Jagiellonian University, Department of Chemistry. There, he specialises in conservation chemistry, with a particular interest in the degradation of paper-based objects. Jacob holds degrees in Chemistry from the University of Iowa and Museum Studies from Gothenburg University, and he is completing his PhD in Sustainable Heritage at UCL. Prior to working at the Jagiellonian University, Jacob was a researcher at Tate (2006–9) and the National Museum in Kraków (2009–11). At both institutions he participated in research projects focusing on the application of micro-fadeometry and anoxia to works on paper. His present research interests include the development of nanocomposite packaging materials and further research into materials degradomics.
Anoxia and Microfading: The Impact on Collection Care – Part 8: David Thickett
David Thickett, Senior Conservation Scientist, English Heritage, London and Salome Guggenheimer, Haute Ecole Suisse, Switzerland: ‘Oxygen and Archaeological Iron’
Archaeological iron is a major challenge to conservation. A recent condition audit of English Heritage’s 500,000 objects identified iron as the most damaged material. Major deterioration reactions of archaeological iron include the oxidation of ferrous chloride to ferric chloride then hydrolysis to the mineral akaganeite. At higher relative humidities, electrochemical iron corrosion occurs, producing more ferrous chloride and damaging the remaining metal core. Both these reactions can require oxygen. Anoxic storage has been investigated for freshly excavated iron. It had limited benefit, with most effect due to RH reduction and low water vapour permeability films. An outcome of the research is that oxygen depletion has been found to be a non invasive, rapid, low cost method to determine archaeological iron stability. Testing allows targeting of resources towards those objects at risk, lowers the risk from low RH towards associated organic materials and has had significant cost, time and carbon footprint benefits across English Heritage’s thirty sites that display archaeological iron.
David Thickett graduated in natural sciences in 1988 and worked in the refractories industry before joining the British Museum in 1990, where he specialised in inorganic materials and preventive conservation. He joined the Collections Conservation Team of English Heritage in 2003. Research interests include the tarnishing of silver, light and RH control methods in historic buildings, protection of outdoor metals, reburial of architectural stone, and panel painting microclimate frames. He is a working group co-chair for European Cooperation in the field of Scientific and Technical Research (COST) action D42, Chemical Interactions between Cultural Artefacts and Indoor Environment (EnviArt), an assistant co-ordinator of the International Council of Museums Committee for Conservation Preventive Conservation Working Group, and a directory board member of the Infrared and Raman Users Group.
Anoxia and Microfading: The Impact on Collection Care – Part 9: Chris Collins
Chris Collins, Head of Conservation, Palaeontology Department, Natural History Museum, London: ‘Reduced Oxygen Enclosures and Natural History and Anthropological Materials’
The Conservation Unit at the Natural History Museum, London has for the last ten years been storing mainly earth science and botanical objects in oxygen free or reduced oxygen environments (ROE). It is estimated that the museum has in excess of one million objects that require preservation in a reduced oxygen or anoxic environment. The enclosures used are generally made from a flexible barrier film and designed to match the original footprint of an object. This has enabled the unit to undertake mass storage of objects in the collections for periods of up to 20 years with very little increase in storage space. A review of the techniques, designs and an evaluation of the success of these enclosures is described along with the current development of rigid, passive enclosures. These are being used to provide long-term storage of research objects containing sensitive organic and inorganic data.
Trained as a structural geologist before moving into conservation, Chris ran the Geological Conservation Unit at the University of Cambridge, Department of Earth Sciences for ten years before moving to the American Museum of Natural History where he was Director of Collections in Palaeontology. Chris has run the Natural History Museum’s, Conservation Unit since 2002 and is responsible for developing and integrating conservation services across the museum. His research work is on the preservation of modern human remains and on the practical implementation of reduced oxygen environments for the preservation of natural history collections and their associated data.
Anoxia and Microfading: The Impact on Collection Care – Part 10: Luisa Casella
Luisa Casella, Photograph Conservator, Harry Ransom Center, The University of Texas at Austin: ‘Display of Original Autochrome Plates in Low-Oxygen Enclosures at the Metropolitan Museum of Art’
Luisa Casella (Andrew W. Mellon Research Scholar in Photograph Conservation 2007–10)
Nora Kennedy (Sherman Fairchild Conservator of Photographs)
Katherine Sanderson (Andrew W. Mellon Research Scholar in Photograph Conservation 2010–12)
Masahiko Tsukada (Associate Research Scientist, Department of Scientific Research The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, USA)
Research carried out at The Metropolitan Museum of Art established benefits in using low-oxygen conditions for the display of autochromes to prevent light fading, when compared to exposure under normal ambient oxygen levels. This was achieved by carrying out accelerated light-fading tests on mock-up autochrome color screens as well as historical samples, using a specifically designed testing protocol. The research project also investigated and tested a sealed enclosure that would allow for anoxic display of autochromes for a brief period of time. In January 2011, during the exhibition Stieglitz, Steichen, Strand at The Metropolitan Museum of Art, five original autochromes by Alfred Stieglitz and Edward Steichen were displayed under low-oxygen conditions with specially designed, viewer-activated lighting, for seven days. The selection included some of the most iconic images from the collection such as Edward Steichen’s portrait of Alfred Stieglitz holding a copy of the journal, Camera Work. Chromogenic transparency facsimiles were displayed for the remainder of the exhibition period. The presentation will focus on the sealed enclosure that was used and how it was practically assembled; the display method and selection criteria for light sources used; and condition monitoring methodology before and after exhibition.
Luisa Casella trained in Art Conservation at the Instituto Politécnico de Tomar in Portugal, specialising in Photograph and Paper Conservation through internships at the Arquivo Fotográfico da Câmara Municipal de Lisboa and at the Biblioteca Nacional de Lisboa. From 2000 to 2002 Luisa studied photography at the Ar.Co – Centro de Arte e Comunicação Visual.
After completing her studies in 1996, Luisa worked as a paper conservator at the Biblioteca Nacional de Lisboa and as a photograph conservator at the Instituto Politécnico de Tomar. In 1998 she joined the staff of Luis Pavão, Limitada, as a photograph conservator. For the following eight years she worked in conservation treatment projects of large-scale photograph collections in several museums, archives and cultural institutions in Portugal. Luisa was also instructor in a number of workshops for photograph collection care professionals.
In 2005 Luisa was awarded a two-year Andrew W. Mellon Fellowship of the Advanced Residency Program in Photograph Conservation at George Eastman House/Image Permanence Institute in Rochester, NY. Her capstone project was the design and implementation of the website Notes on Photographs, an online resource on photograph characterisation and conservation.
In 2007 this website was awarded a two-year National Leadership Grant for Museums from the Institute of Museum and Library Services for further development. In 2007 Luisa was awarded the first Research Scholarship in Photograph Conservation at The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City. The scholarship had the duration of three years during which Luisa researched the light-fading behavior of autochrome dyes under low-oxygen conditions.
Since April 2011 Luisa works as Photograph Conservator at the Harry Ransom Center in the University of Texas at Austin.
Anoxia and Microfading: The Impact on Collection Care – Part 11: Yvonne Shashoua
Dr Yvonne Shashoua, Senior Researcher, Department of Conservation, National Museum of Denmark, Copenhagen: ‘Anoxic Storage of Polymers’
Anoxic storage is increasingly of interest to those caring for modern and ethnographic collections to inhibit oxidation because it offers low technology at relatively low cost. Both theoretical calculations and accelerated ageing have suggested that enclosing objects with oxygen absorber can measurably slow their degradation. Collaboration with the British Museum in 2010 presented a unique opportunity to return to a group of ethnographic rubber objects stored using Ageless absorber for fifteen years. Although visual examination showed no change in condition, SPME/GC-MS identified products consistent with oxidative degradation of rubber and SEM showed changes in surface morphology. However, compared with objects that were not enclosed, anoxic storage was clearly beneficial.Many plastics degrade by oxidation manifested by discolouration, stickiness, stiffening and disintegration within two to thirty-five years after manufacture. The use of oxygen absorbers has been proposed to extend their useful lives. However the situation is complex. Few adsorbents, including those to remove oxygen, are specific. Silica gel adsorbs nitrogen- and sulphur oxides and plasticisers in addition to water. Ageless sachets adsorb plasticisers from cellulose acetate, nitrate and PVC objects, resulting in physical and chemical degradation. The benefits and risks of anoxic storage for polymers will be discussed.
Yvonne Shashoua is a Senior Researcher at the National Museum of Denmark investigating the real time degradation of plastics. After graduating in industrial chemistry she worked as a polymer technologist in the paint industry. Yvonne joined the British Museum in 1988, specialising in the deterioration and conservation of ceramics, textiles, stone, paper and plastics. Yvonne has more than seventy publications including monograph ´Conservation of Plastics-materials science, degradation and conservation´ in 2008. Current research interests include cleaning of plastics in EU 7th Framework project POPART (Preservation of Plastics ARTefacts in museum collections) and collaborating with artists to predict the stability of plastics in art in PRIMI (Plastics Research and Innovation in Museums and Industry). Yvonne has been awarded a Getty Conservation Institute Residential Scholarship for six months and will research the effectiveness of adsorbents at inhibiting degradation of cellulose nitrate and acetate in 2012.
Anoxia and Microfading: The Impact on Collection Care – Part 12: Bruce Ford
Bruce Ford, Consultant Conservator and Scientist, Tate, London: ‘Microfading and Anoxic Enclosures’
Light-fading of fugitive dyes, pigments and other components of artworks is so strongly influenced by the happenstance of production, use and exposure that rates are very difficult to predict from data on surrogate samples. For this reason alone microfading is currently the only practical way of rapidly screening real objects and assessing the benefit of anoxic enclosures for the mitigation of light damage. Microfading also has an important research role to play in the design and construction of low oxygen enclosures by helping to define what ‘anoxia’ might be. Do colourants respond best at 1% or 0.1% oxygen or even less and is it possible to make such a generalisation? Microfading itself has strengths and limitations that will determine the directions research and routine collection management based on the method will take.
Bruce Ford is a consultant with Art & Archival Pty Ltd in Canberra and works on rock art conservation and site management in addition to museum-based science and conservation policy issues. He has established a micro-fading laboratory for the National Museum of Australia to support a lighting scheme designed to better identify and direct resources in this area. He is currently working for Tate supporting their anoxic framing project with microfading. He holds a BSc (Hons) in Chemistry, a Graduate Diploma in Conservation and an MA in Museum Studies.
Anoxia and Microfading: The Impact on Collection Care – Part 13: Nicki Smith
Nicki Smith, Deputy Manager, Conservation, National Museum of Australia, Canberra (with video from Guy Hanson, Senior Curator Guy Hanson, National Museum of Australia): ‘Into the Light: Lighting Guidelines at the National Museum of Australia’
The National Museum of Australia has changed its lighting guidelines over the last three years. The use of a micro-fade testing machine has provided fade-rate data on our own collection, and this has been combined with a risk assessment based on significance to provide a more comprehensive framework. This talk will briefly describe the development, reception and impact of the scheme across the Museum.
Nicki Smith is Deputy Manager, Conservation at the National Museum of Australia. She has a Bachelor of Applied Science in Conservation of Cultural Materials and Bachelor of Science in Chemistry and Archaeology. She has participated as an archaeologist on excavations in Thailand and New Zealand and worked in Cambodia for two years at the National Museum of Cambodia and a temple site at Angkor. After moving into conservation she has worked on excavations in Turkey, marine shipwrecks in Australia and as the Conservation Team Leader to excavate and conserve Bronze Age textiles in Vietnam. Previous research includes a two-year research grant into the conservation of Australian Aboriginal bark paintings but after joining a national cultural institution changeovers and lighting guidelines became a pressing need for further research. Nicki has contributed to an ICCROM teaching workshop in Malaysia and done various stints at managing the conservation section at the National Museum of Australia.
Anoxia and Microfading: The Impact on Collection Care – Part 14: Discussion 1
Discussion 1: Reporting back from discussion groups
Group One: Assessing works for low oxygen storage or display. Convener: Dr Shin Maekawa, Senior Scientist, The Getty Conservation Institute, Los Angeles
Group Two: Incorporating microfading into lighting policies. Convener: Deborah Potter, Head of Conservation, Collection, Tate, London
Group Three: Can you save resources with microfading and low oxygen display and storage? Convener: Nicki Smith, Deputy Manager, Conservation, National Museum of Australia, Canberra
Chair: Patricia Smithen, Head of Conservation Programme, Tate, London
This two-day international conference presented current knowledge, recent research and practice-based case studies exploring the use of low-oxygen environments and microfading measurements to establish the boundaries for safe display of light-sensitive objects.The event coincided with the culmination of a five-year Tate research project funded by the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills (BIS) Public Sector Research Exploitation Fund.
The project focused on developing a commercially available low-oxygen enclosure for the protection of works of art on paper. Central to this research has been the use of microfading as a tool to demonstrate how low-oxygen environments can minimise light damage during display, as well as studies of the effects of anoxia lowering the oxygen concentration on colorants. The aim of the conference was to bring together experts in the field to assess the risks and opportunities of these technologies, including the potential for cost reduction, increased public access to light-sensitive works, and their contribution towards the sustainable museum. This conference will be of interest to cultural heritage, museum and collection-care professionals, students, academic researchers, and all who work with fine art, manuscript, archaeological, textile, natural and social history collections.