Session 2: The Evolution of ‘Globalization’

Speaker: Suman Gupta, Senior Lecturer, Literature Department, The Open University



Suman Gupta‘s presentation gives a brief history of the evolving connotations of the term ‘globalization’ from the late 1970s onwards. It ponders some of the early uses of the term, as it emerged to replace ‘internationalization’ from three linked directions: alluding to extensions of American sociology; denoting a programme of instituting uniformities within and across nation states; and, most importantly, connoting the character of advanced capitalism. The manner in which the term gradually acquired, in the course of the 1980s and 1990s, an abstract normative character, representing inevitable change on a global scale, is also considered. Associations of the term with cultural and economic neo-imperialism spawned, particularly in the course of the 1990s, an ‘anti-globalization’ movement – or more precisely, some sort of alignment of various interest groups against the globalizing establishment. This is often characterized as advocating ‘globalization from below’. Gupta observes that some political theorists now understand ‘globalization’ as incorporating the ideas and activities of both those who champion changes from above and those who struggle for changes from below.

Further Reading

John Benyon and David Dunkerley eds. Globalization: The Reader. London: Routledge, 2000

Malcolm Waters, Globalization (Key Ideas series). London: Routledge, 1995

And if you want more:

Martin Albrow, The Global Age. Cambridge: Polity, 1996

Zygmunt Bauman, Globalization. Cambridge: Polity, 1998

Homi Bhabha , The location of culture. London: Routledge., 1994

Pierre Bourdieu, Acts of Resistance. Cambridge: Polity, 1998

Pierre Bourdieu, Firing Back. London: Verso, 2003

Jeremy Brecher, Tim Costello, Brendan Smith. Globalization from Below. Cambridge, Mass.: South End Press, 2000

Noam Chomsky, World Orders, Old and New. London: Pluto, 1994

Anthony Giddens ed., The Global Third Way Debate. Cambridge: Polity, 2001

David Held et al., Global Transformations. Cambridge: Polity, 1999

David Held and Anthony McGrew. Globalization/Anti-globalization. Cambridge: Polity, 2002

Paul Hirst, Globalization in Question. Cambridge: Polity, 1996

M Keck and M. Sikkink, Activists Beyond Borders. Ithaca: Cornell Univ. Press, 1998

Naomi Klein, No Logo. London: Flamingo, 1999

Robbie Robertson, The Three Waves of Globalization. London: Zed, 2002

Roland Robertson, Globalization. London: Sage, 1992

Saskia Sassen, Globalization and Its Discontents. New York: New Press. 1999

Joseph Stiglitz, Globalization and Its Discontents. London: Penguin, 2002