Pan-Arabism refers to a political and cultural movement devoted to the unification and modernisation of the Arab-speaking world which took root in the late nineteenth century as Arab nations sought independence from the Ottoman Empire

The movement was socialist in outlook and strongly opposed to interference from Western powers, seeking to empower Arab nations by the formation of alliances and economic co-operation. 

In the 1950s there were several attempts at Arab unity, particularly in Egypt, Jordan and Syria, and an agreement was reached to accept the modernised version of the Quranic Arabic language as the universal written language of the Arab world. State financing of the arts by President Nasser in Egypt led to a cultural boom in the country. 

Support for pan-Arabism began to decline in the 1960s after the Arab defeat by Israel in the 1967 Six-day War.