Artist’s replica

Item made by the artist or someone sanctioned by the artist, as a replacement for or version of the original, and using the same specifications. [e.g. Man Ray Gift]. May be qualified as ‘editioned’

Authenticated replica

Item certified as having been made by the artist or someone sanctioned by the artist, as a replacement for or version of the original, and using the same specifications

Copy

Item made by someone other than the artist in order to match the original. [e.g. Roman copies of Greek sculptures]

Duplicate

Inferring only one replica (or copy) of a single object

Editioned replica

Item that is one of several numbered items made by the artist or someone sanctioned by the artist, that reproduce the original using the same specifications

Emulate

A conservation term used to describe the intention to recreate the essence of a work

Exhibition copy

Item made by someone other than (though sometimes sanctioned by) the artist, as a public substitute for the original using the same specifications. [e.g. frequently found in relation to photographs]

Fabrication

The act of making an item from raw materials; noun: the result of ‘fabrication’ (but distinct from the idea of ‘lie’)

Facsimile

An exact copy or faithful likeness of the original work [e.g. particularly used in relation to books or manuscripts]

Fake – item made by someone other than the artist to a degree of precision and aging that seeks to deceive

Imitate

To make a copy

Original

Item made, ordered, certified or otherwise sanctioned by the artist, at a given time (and place), a new creation by an artist

Realisation

An idea or proposal that is made concrete

Reassembled work

Item originally made by the artist, and then reassembled (by the artist, or someone sanctioned by the artist), using original parts

Reconstruction

Item originally made by the artist, and then reassembled (by the artist, or someone sanctioned by the artist), using original and new parts

Re-fabrication

See remake

Remake

Item originally made by the artist, and then remade (by the artist, or someone sanctioned by the artist), using new materials

Rework

Action taken, possibly at a later date, on an existing item by an artist (or someone sanctioned by the artist) to correct a defect

Replica

Item made by someone other than the artist (though under licence) as a public substitute for the original using the same specifications

Reproduction

Item made by someone other than the artist (though under licence?) resembling the appearance of the original superficially, but not necessarily its material or techniques. [e.g. reproduction Rietveld furniture]

Simulate

In conservation terms, an attempt at close representation in order to study a specific problem or aspect of the artist’s practice

Substitute

An item that can take the place of another, but not necessarily holding the same characteristics; synonym: surrogate

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