Throughout this period, many British artists were conscious of the threat of violence around the world which had led to a rise in protest movements, in particular the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament. Artists such as Richard Hamilton, Colin Self and Joe Tilson, raised awareness of political issues whilst continuing to develop new techniques that defined the Pop art movement.

In 1968 the wave of international protest, at its height in Paris, sparked sympathetic outbursts in British colleges and universities. Photographers such as Don McCullin raised public awareness of the severity of the Vietnam War, while Roger Mayne, Lewis Morley and Michael Cooper captured seminal protest events at home.

Colin Self, 'Leopardskin Nuclear Bomber No. 2' 1963

Leopardskin Nuclear Bomber No 2 combines the imagery of a predatory beast - the leopard - with nuclear weaponry. The sculpture exemplifies the mood of anxiety in Self's work of the early 1960s. The association between nuclear and animal aggression illustrates Self's belief that self-destructive forces govern human behaviour. Sexual aggression is also referred to by the overtly phallic pink fuselage of the plane.

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Leopardskin Nuclear Bomber No 2 combines the imagery of a predatory beast - the leopard - with nuclear weaponry. The sculpture exemplifies the mood of anxiety in Self’s work of the early 1960s. The association between nuclear and animal aggression illustrates Self’s belief that self-destructive forces govern human behaviour. Sexual aggression is also referred to by the overtly phallic pink fuselage of the plane. 

The theme of this multi-layered painting is the murder in 1919 of the Jewish agitator and theoretician Rosa Luxemburg. She was killed by those opposed to the revolutionary movement that swept Germany in the wake of the First World War. Both of Kitaj’s grandmothers, one of whom appears at top left, were refugees and for him Luxemburg stood for a long history of anti-semitic murders.

R.B. Kitaj, 'The Murder of Rosa Luxemburg' 1960

R.B. Kitaj
The Murder of Rosa Luxemburg 1960
Oil and collage on canvas
support: 1530 x 1524 mm frame: 1550 x 1535 x 55 mm
Purchased 1980© The estate of R. B. Kitaj

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Transparency I: Yuri Gagarin 12 April 1961 highlights how political figures such as the Russian Cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin became instantly recognisable media celebrities. Tilson uses the format of a blown-up Ektachrome to frame found media images of this foreign icon. 

Joe Tilson, 'Transparency I: Yuri Gagarin 12 April 1961' 1968

Joe Tilson
Transparency I: Yuri Gagarin 12 April 1961 1968
Screenprint and mixed media on plastic
object: 1219 x 1219 x 51 mm
Presented by the artist 1976© Joe Tilson. All Rights Reserved, DACS 2002

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This work uses Hamilton’s signature technique of combining found elements from advertising and media. The idea for the painting came from an article on male fashion in Playboy magazine. It also alludes to the ‘Space Race’ between the USSR and the USA, at its height under President Kennedy.

Richard Hamilton, 'Towards a definitive statement on the coming trends in men's wear and accessories (a) Together let us explore the stars' 1962

Richard Hamilton
Towards a definitive statement on the coming trends in men's wear and accessories (a) Together let us explore the stars 1962
Oil, cellulose paint and collage on wood
support: 610 x 813 mm frame: 809 x 1011 x 810 mm
Purchased 1964© The estate of Richard Hamilton

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