Lorna Simpson, ‘Five Day Forecast’ 1991
Lorna Simpson, Five Day Forecast 1991 . Tate . © Lorna Simpson, courtesy Salon 94, New York

Room 5 in Constellations

Barbara Kruger Untitled (We Will No Longer Be Seen and Not Heard) 1985

3 rooms in Constellations

No Woman, No Cry

Chris Ofili, No Woman, No Cry  1998

This work is a tribute to the London teenager Stephen Lawrence who was murdered in a racially motivated attack in 1993. A public inquiry into the murder investigation concluded that the Metropolitan Police force was institutionally racist. In each of the tears shed by the woman in the painting is a collaged image of Stephen Lawrence’s face, while the words ‘R.I.P. Stephen Lawrence’ are just discernible beneath the layers of paint. As well as this specific reference, the artist intended the painting to be read as a universal portrayal of melancholy and grief.

Gallery label, August 2018

© Chris Ofili, courtesy Victoria Miro, London

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Five Day Forecast

Lorna Simpson, Five Day Forecast  1991

If portraiture is intended to communicate something unique about its subject, Five Day Forecast might be described as an ‘anti-portrait’. The economy of the images, their serial arrangement and the use of black and white recall the conventions of nineteenth-century ethnographic photography, in which the subject becomes a de-individualised representative of a wider group. But in Simpson’s work, rather than being available for scrutiny and categorisation, the figure is photographed cropped so only her torso is visible. In this way, she remains ultimately inaccessible to the viewer.

Gallery label, November 2015

© Lorna Simpson, courtesy Salon 94, New York

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Hito Steyerl, How Not to Be Seen: A Fucking Didactic Educational .MOV File  2013

How Not to Be Seen: A Fucking Didactic Educational .MOV File 2013 is a fourteen-minute, single-channel video projection. It consists of five chapters or lessons, each proposing ironic and often humorous ways in which an individual can prevent themselves from being captured visually by digital technology, and adopts the structure and tone of an instructional presentation. Featuring the artist and other actors, including members of the crew that helped to shoot it, and narrated by an automated male voice with an English accent, the video addresses the condition of hyper-visibility that emerged in the early 2010s following developments in the way digital images can be created and disseminated, and archived online for the purposes of surveillance. The title of the video makes reference to a sketch from Monty Python’s Flying Circus, a British comedy series that was broadcast on BBC One between 1969 and 1974. In the original satirical sketch, ‘How Not to Be Seen’ purports to be a British government film explaining the importance of remaining invisible within a landscape. The video was produced in an edition of ten, of which this copy is number five, plus two artist’s proofs.

3/18
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Michelangelo’s ‘David’

Sir Eduardo Paolozzi, Michelangelo’s ‘David’  ?1987

Paolozzi was walking past Harrods store one morning and saw a window dresser setting up a display which included a plaster cast of the head of Michelangelo's marble sculpture of David. He temporarily borrowed the cast from Harrods and had another cast made from it at the Royal College of Art. Paolozzi sawed his cast in pieces and glued wooden blocks in the cuts. The attack upon the cast is partly a comment on the great plaster cast collection of antique sculptures that used to belong to the Munich Academy of Arts, and which was largely destroyed during student riots in 1972. When Paolozzi was a student at Edinburgh College of Art in 1943, part of the teaching was to draw from casts of Michelangelo's David.

Gallery label, August 2004

© The Eduardo Paolozzi Foundation

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Identity Transfer 1

VALIE EXPORT, Identity Transfer 1  1968, printed late 1990s

Austrian artist VALIE EXPORT adopted her pseudonym in 1967 to reject the names of both her father and of her former husband and assume a sort of commercial brand identity. Her works – including films, photographs and performances – expanded the transgressive ideas of Viennese Actionism to include a feminist critique of the limits imposed on the individual based on their perceived gender. In the Identity Transfer series she assumes a distinctly unfeminine pose, at odds with her hair style and make-up, playing with the codes through which gender identity is traditionally conveyed.

Gallery label, February 2016

© DACS 2020

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Relation of Aesthetic Choice to Life Activity (Function) of the Subject

Billy Apple, Relation of Aesthetic Choice to Life Activity (Function) of the Subject  1961–2

In 1961 Ascott became interested in cybernetic
theory and adopted cybernetic approaches
into his formulation of the Groundcourse at
Ealing College of Art (1961–4). For Ascott,
cybernetics represented a process of
communication and behaviour from which
observations of the world could be made.
Here, the combination of multiple possibilities
achieved by the interrelation of the panels and
solid wooden elements, combined with a
transparent moveable central panel, allows
the work to be created by the viewer whose
interaction brings the object into being.

Gallery label, September 2016

© Billy Apple

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Barbara Kruger, Untitled (We Will No Longer Be Seen and Not Heard)  1985

Kruger aims to challenge the viewer's expectations through striking juxtapositions of found photographs and provocative text. Her works criticise the spectacle of mass-media imagery while taking advantage of it as a powerful means of communication. She employs language to question cultural stereotypes, often using the opposition of 'we' (women) and 'you' (men) as a way of attacking the fact that art and culture are usually directed towards a male viewer. But here, the 'we' for whom she speaks is not made clear. In this work, Kruger mixes sign language, gesture and words to enforce or counteract meaning.

Gallery label, August 2004

7/18
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Trademark #5

Edward Ruscha, Trademark #5  1962

© Edward Ruscha

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Untitled

John Stezaker, Untitled  1978–9

The source for the image presented by this two-part silkscreen painting is an Italian magazine that used photographs and a comic-strip format to present romantic stories. The head has been characteristically isolated by Stezaker amid an otherwise blank field of colour, in the same way that it has been removed from an unspecified narrative. For Stezaker, it is the viewer’s reading of the man’s gaze that provides the work with subject. The banality of the source-image is self-consciously theatricalised by the black monochromatic field that holds it, as Stezaker has explained, as a ‘trap for the gaze.’

Gallery label, October 2013

© John Stezaker

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Mark Leckey, Felix Gets Broadcasted  2007

10/18
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Robert Heinecken, Are You Rea #1  1968

Are You Rea 1969 is a set of twenty-five lithograph prints made in 1968 by the American photographic artist Robert Heinecken in an edition of 500, of which Tate’s copy is number 417 (Tate L03612–L03636). They were made from the original gelatin silver print photographs taken the same year. Featuring dense layers of text and images of women, the Are You Rea lithographs are an example of Heinecken’s experiments with replication of photographs made using the contact printing technique with which he experimented throughout his career. He would place a page from a magazine directly on top of photographic paper and then shine a light through the page to expose the images on both its recto and verso directly onto the photographic paper. In this case, the use of silver gelatin photographic paper results in black and white images; in later works, such as Recto/Verso 1988 (Tate L03600–L03611), Cibachrome paper was used to give colour images. Pronounced ‘Are You Ray’, the set was made as a tribute to the surrealist artist and photographer Man Ray (1890–1976) – who pioneered the use of photogram and camera-less photographic techniques – and is one of Heinecken’s earliest experiments with contact printing. Considered as the artist’s breakthrough work, the original silver gelatin print portfolio is held by the artist’s estate.

11/18
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Robert Heinecken, Are You Rea #4  1968

Are You Rea 1969 is a set of twenty-five lithograph prints made in 1968 by the American photographic artist Robert Heinecken in an edition of 500, of which Tate’s copy is number 417 (Tate L03612–L03636). They were made from the original gelatin silver print photographs taken the same year. Featuring dense layers of text and images of women, the Are You Rea lithographs are an example of Heinecken’s experiments with replication of photographs made using the contact printing technique with which he experimented throughout his career. He would place a page from a magazine directly on top of photographic paper and then shine a light through the page to expose the images on both its recto and verso directly onto the photographic paper. In this case, the use of silver gelatin photographic paper results in black and white images; in later works, such as Recto/Verso 1988 (Tate L03600–L03611), Cibachrome paper was used to give colour images. Pronounced ‘Are You Ray’, the set was made as a tribute to the surrealist artist and photographer Man Ray (1890–1976) – who pioneered the use of photogram and camera-less photographic techniques – and is one of Heinecken’s earliest experiments with contact printing. Considered as the artist’s breakthrough work, the original silver gelatin print portfolio is held by the artist’s estate.

12/18
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Robert Heinecken, Are You Rea #18  1968

Are You Rea 1969 is a set of twenty-five lithograph prints made in 1968 by the American photographic artist Robert Heinecken in an edition of 500, of which Tate’s copy is number 417 (Tate L03612–L03636). They were made from the original gelatin silver print photographs taken the same year. Featuring dense layers of text and images of women, the Are You Rea lithographs are an example of Heinecken’s experiments with replication of photographs made using the contact printing technique with which he experimented throughout his career. He would place a page from a magazine directly on top of photographic paper and then shine a light through the page to expose the images on both its recto and verso directly onto the photographic paper. In this case, the use of silver gelatin photographic paper results in black and white images; in later works, such as Recto/Verso 1988 (Tate L03600–L03611), Cibachrome paper was used to give colour images. Pronounced ‘Are You Ray’, the set was made as a tribute to the surrealist artist and photographer Man Ray (1890–1976) – who pioneered the use of photogram and camera-less photographic techniques – and is one of Heinecken’s earliest experiments with contact printing. Considered as the artist’s breakthrough work, the original silver gelatin print portfolio is held by the artist’s estate.

13/18
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Robert Heinecken, Are You Rea #15  1968

Are You Rea 1969 is a set of twenty-five lithograph prints made in 1968 by the American photographic artist Robert Heinecken in an edition of 500, of which Tate’s copy is number 417 (Tate L03612–L03636). They were made from the original gelatin silver print photographs taken the same year. Featuring dense layers of text and images of women, the Are You Rea lithographs are an example of Heinecken’s experiments with replication of photographs made using the contact printing technique with which he experimented throughout his career. He would place a page from a magazine directly on top of photographic paper and then shine a light through the page to expose the images on both its recto and verso directly onto the photographic paper. In this case, the use of silver gelatin photographic paper results in black and white images; in later works, such as Recto/Verso 1988 (Tate L03600–L03611), Cibachrome paper was used to give colour images. Pronounced ‘Are You Ray’, the set was made as a tribute to the surrealist artist and photographer Man Ray (1890–1976) – who pioneered the use of photogram and camera-less photographic techniques – and is one of Heinecken’s earliest experiments with contact printing. Considered as the artist’s breakthrough work, the original silver gelatin print portfolio is held by the artist’s estate.

14/18
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Robert Heinecken, Are You Rea #9  1968

Are You Rea 1969 is a set of twenty-five lithograph prints made in 1968 by the American photographic artist Robert Heinecken in an edition of 500, of which Tate’s copy is number 417 (Tate L03612–L03636). They were made from the original gelatin silver print photographs taken the same year. Featuring dense layers of text and images of women, the Are You Rea lithographs are an example of Heinecken’s experiments with replication of photographs made using the contact printing technique with which he experimented throughout his career. He would place a page from a magazine directly on top of photographic paper and then shine a light through the page to expose the images on both its recto and verso directly onto the photographic paper. In this case, the use of silver gelatin photographic paper results in black and white images; in later works, such as Recto/Verso 1988 (Tate L03600–L03611), Cibachrome paper was used to give colour images. Pronounced ‘Are You Ray’, the set was made as a tribute to the surrealist artist and photographer Man Ray (1890–1976) – who pioneered the use of photogram and camera-less photographic techniques – and is one of Heinecken’s earliest experiments with contact printing. Considered as the artist’s breakthrough work, the original silver gelatin print portfolio is held by the artist’s estate.

15/18
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Robert Heinecken, Are You Rea #23  1968

Are You Rea 1969 is a set of twenty-five lithograph prints made in 1968 by the American photographic artist Robert Heinecken in an edition of 500, of which Tate’s copy is number 417 (Tate L03612–L03636). They were made from the original gelatin silver print photographs taken the same year. Featuring dense layers of text and images of women, the Are You Rea lithographs are an example of Heinecken’s experiments with replication of photographs made using the contact printing technique with which he experimented throughout his career. He would place a page from a magazine directly on top of photographic paper and then shine a light through the page to expose the images on both its recto and verso directly onto the photographic paper. In this case, the use of silver gelatin photographic paper results in black and white images; in later works, such as Recto/Verso 1988 (Tate L03600–L03611), Cibachrome paper was used to give colour images. Pronounced ‘Are You Ray’, the set was made as a tribute to the surrealist artist and photographer Man Ray (1890–1976) – who pioneered the use of photogram and camera-less photographic techniques – and is one of Heinecken’s earliest experiments with contact printing. Considered as the artist’s breakthrough work, the original silver gelatin print portfolio is held by the artist’s estate.

16/18
artworks in Barbara Kruger

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Robert Heinecken, Are You Rea #22  1968

Are You Rea 1969 is a set of twenty-five lithograph prints made in 1968 by the American photographic artist Robert Heinecken in an edition of 500, of which Tate’s copy is number 417 (Tate L03612–L03636). They were made from the original gelatin silver print photographs taken the same year. Featuring dense layers of text and images of women, the Are You Rea lithographs are an example of Heinecken’s experiments with replication of photographs made using the contact printing technique with which he experimented throughout his career. He would place a page from a magazine directly on top of photographic paper and then shine a light through the page to expose the images on both its recto and verso directly onto the photographic paper. In this case, the use of silver gelatin photographic paper results in black and white images; in later works, such as Recto/Verso 1988 (Tate L03600–L03611), Cibachrome paper was used to give colour images. Pronounced ‘Are You Ray’, the set was made as a tribute to the surrealist artist and photographer Man Ray (1890–1976) – who pioneered the use of photogram and camera-less photographic techniques – and is one of Heinecken’s earliest experiments with contact printing. Considered as the artist’s breakthrough work, the original silver gelatin print portfolio is held by the artist’s estate.

17/18
artworks in Barbara Kruger

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Robert Heinecken, Are You Rea #7  1968

Are You Rea 1969 is a set of twenty-five lithograph prints made in 1968 by the American photographic artist Robert Heinecken in an edition of 500, of which Tate’s copy is number 417 (Tate L03612–L03636). They were made from the original gelatin silver print photographs taken the same year. Featuring dense layers of text and images of women, the Are You Rea lithographs are an example of Heinecken’s experiments with replication of photographs made using the contact printing technique with which he experimented throughout his career. He would place a page from a magazine directly on top of photographic paper and then shine a light through the page to expose the images on both its recto and verso directly onto the photographic paper. In this case, the use of silver gelatin photographic paper results in black and white images; in later works, such as Recto/Verso 1988 (Tate L03600–L03611), Cibachrome paper was used to give colour images. Pronounced ‘Are You Ray’, the set was made as a tribute to the surrealist artist and photographer Man Ray (1890–1976) – who pioneered the use of photogram and camera-less photographic techniques – and is one of Heinecken’s earliest experiments with contact printing. Considered as the artist’s breakthrough work, the original silver gelatin print portfolio is held by the artist’s estate.

18/18
artworks in Barbara Kruger

Art in this room

No Woman, No Cry
Chris Ofili No Woman, No Cry 1998
Five Day Forecast
Lorna Simpson Five Day Forecast 1991

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Hito Steyerl How Not to Be Seen: A Fucking Didactic Educational .MOV File 2013
Michelangelo’s ‘David’
Sir Eduardo Paolozzi Michelangelo’s ‘David’ ?1987
Identity Transfer 1
VALIE EXPORT Identity Transfer 1 1968, printed late 1990s
Relation of Aesthetic Choice to Life Activity (Function) of the Subject
Billy Apple Relation of Aesthetic Choice to Life Activity (Function) of the Subject 1961–2

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