Swedish rule gradually established over the scattered tribes of western and southern Finland, while Novgorod (medieval Russia) dominates the eastern territory Karelia.
Peace treaty officially divides Finland between Sweden and Novgorod.
The New Testament is translated into Finnish, the first time the language appears in print. Swedish remains the language of administration, business and law.
Sweden surrenders Finland after war with Russia.
The Czar declares Finland a semi-autonomous Grand Duchy with himself as constitutional monarch.
Publication of the Kalevala, an epic poem based on traditional folk songs. It becomes the cornerstone of Finnish national identity.
Finnish becomes an official administrative language.
Jean Sibelius composes ‘Finlandia’, which becomes a symbol of Finland’s struggle for independence from Russia
Finnish women are the first in Europe to gain the vote, and the first in the world to be eligible for election.
Independence from Russia.
Soviet Union attacks Finland. The ‘Winter War’ ends in 1940, with a treaty giving south-eastern territories to Russia.
‘The Continuation War’. Finland joins the German attack on Soviet Union.
Hosts the Olympic Games.
Joins the United Nations.
Becomes a member of the European Union.
The first female president, Tarja Halonen, is elected.