American sculptor, painter and printmaker. Born in Coos Bay, Oregon. Studied at the University of California, Berkeley, and afterwards taught until 1950 at the San Francisco Institute of Art and at Mills College, Oakland, California. Began as a painter and graphic artist, then was introduced to sculpture by Archipenko and turned mainly to sculpture from about 1942. At first worked mostly in wood, making abstract sculptures which were increasingly open and sometimes with movable parts. Lived 1950-63 mainly in Paris, where she started to make open linear metal sculptures, sometimes incorporating pieces of glass; also stayed elsewhere in Europe, especially Rome. First principal one-woman exhibition at the Galleria Montepoleone, Milan, 1954. In 1963 returned to the USA and settled at Los Angeles, where she lives now. Since 1955 has carried out a number of commissions for fountains, ornamental gates etc., including a 'Structure for Reflecting Pool' at the San Diego Fine Arts Gallery in 1974 and stained-glass windows for the Church of St Basil, Los Angeles, 1968-9.
Ronald Alley, Catalogue of the Tate Gallery's Collection of Modern Art other than Works by British Artists, Tate Gallery and Sotheby Parke-Bernet, London 1981, p.213