American landscape and figure painter in oils, pastel and watercolour. One of the American-born painters who worked mainly in Europe. Born in Cincinnati, Ohio, of German parentage. Studied at Cincinnati Art Academy and 1876-8 at the Munich Academy. Began at this time to study watercolour painting. Spent 1878-83 in the USA. Settled in London in 1883, and worked much on Hampstead Heath, along the Thames near Chiswick and at Hastings. First one-man exhibition at the Dowdeswell Galleries, London, 1890. Moved to Meissen in 1901, and became a member of the Munich Secession and the Berlin Secession. Died at Meissen.
Ronald Alley, Catalogue of the Tate Gallery's Collection of Modern Art other than Works by British Artists, Tate Gallery and Sotheby Parke-Bernet, London 1981, p.547