Dutch painter in oils and watercolour, etcher and lithographer. Born in The Hague. Studied painting at The Hague Academy 1879-84 under S. van Witsen. A visit to Constantinople in 1888 confirmed his lifelong preoccupation with eastern subjects, and was followed by visits to Egypt and Palestine, India (1898 and 1925), Tunisia, Morocco, Spain, the Dutch East Indies, etc. Made a few notes on the spot, but drew and painted from memory and imagination. Best known as an etcher in a rather Rembrandt-like style and was awarded a Grand Prix for his etchings at the 1900 Paris International Exhibition. Illustrated several books, including lithographs for Flaubert's La Légende de St. Julien l'Hospitalier (1891) and etchings for Villiers de l'Isle Adam's Akédysséril (1894), and decorated the margins of his copies of the Arabian Nights' Tales with over 7,000 drawings. Died in Amsterdam.
Ronald Alley, Catalogue of the Tate Gallery's Collection of Modern Art other than Works by British Artists, Tate Gallery and Sotheby Parke-Bernet, London 1981, pp.35-6