Geoffrey Clarke

Maquette for the Unknown Political Prisoner

1953

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Artist
Geoffrey Clarke 1924–2014
Medium
Lead, zinc and resin
Dimensions
Object: 280 x 230 x 180 mm
Collection
Tate
Acquisition
Purchased 1994
Reference
T06874

Not on display

Summary

In January 1952 the Institute of Contemporary Arts, London announced an international sculpture competition to commemorate 'all those unknown men and women who in our time have been deprived of their lives or their liberty in the cause of human freedom' (International Sculpture Competition: The Unknown Political Prisoner, p.2). The competition received funding of about £11,500 from anonymous backers in the United States, and although it was officially open to artists from all countries the absence of any entries from the Soviet Union or its satellite states was a conspicuous reminder of the project's Cold War subtext. It has often been suggested that the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) of the United States government was the unnamed sponsor of the competition.

Geoffrey Clarke made four maquettes for the competition of which only one was submitted. His entry was among 3,500 entries received from fifty-seven countries. It was not one of the twelve pieces chosen to represent Great Britain in the final, but it was included in an exhibition at the Burlington Galleries, London, in January 1953 which showcased the winning entries and a selection of commended works. This particular Maquette for the Unknown Prisoner was one of the pieces Clarke did not submit. The flat oval shape bound round with strips of metal and apparently balanced on a central column represents a head. The tighly wound binding, which seems to be anchored in the dish below, suggests extreme physical restraint and the repression of expression.

The two other maquettes that Clarke did not submit pursued a similarly literal interpretation of repression. One showed a head encased in a tight cage on a stone plinth (whereabouts unknown) and the other was an iron piece of a tongue on a little table restrained by an iron band (Private Collection). The submitted maquette (Private Collection, reproduced, Black, cat.no.34) was constructed from four elements and shaped a bit like a bird cage. Emprisoned within the cage was a cross. All of the maquettes were made in a Ministry of Works hut behind Imperial College, London.

Clarke had come to prominence a year earlier at the Venice Biennale where his work was included with that of Lynn Chadwick, Reg Butler, Bernard Meadows, Kenneth Armitage and Robert Adams, among others, in the Young British Sculptors display. They all worked with forged and welded metal, and, according to the critic Herbert Read, they shared in their spikey, insect-like forms an 'iconography of despair' which reflected a pervasive sense of anxiety in the Cold War era. Peter Black, however, has argued that Clarke's work addressed 'the permanent truths about Man' (Geoffrey Clarke RA, p.6) outside the confines of a specific historical moment.

Further reading:
Peter Black, Geoffrey Clarke: Symbols for Man. Sculpture and Graphic Work 1949-94, exhibition catalogue, The Wolsey Art Gallery, Ipswich 1994, p.13
Geoffrey Clarke RA: Sculpture and Works on Paper 1950-1994, exhibition catalogue, Yorkshire Sculpture Park, Wakefield 1994, reproduced p.13

Toby Treves
October 2000

Display caption

In the 1950s, Geoffrey Clarke, like his contemporaries Lynn Chadwick and Reg Butler, worked frequently with iron, and he is best known for his public sculpture. This maquette is one of several that he made in response to the Institute of Contemporary Art's 1953 sculpture competition on the theme of 'The Unknown Political Prisoner', and represents a prisoner's head that has been wrapped up and tied down. Clarke manipulated his forging technique to convey a sense of both physical and verbal bondage. In doing so, he has created a work emblematic of the sacrifices endured in the cause of human freedom.

Gallery label, August 2004

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