Catalogue entry

Sir Peter Lely 1618–1680

Man Playing a Pipe
Oil on canvas
1410 x 1048 mm
Presented by the National Art Collections Fund (Eugene Cremetti Fund) 1966

Ownership history
In the collection of the Earls of Craven, Coombe Abbey, Warwickshire by 1739; by descent to Cornelia, Countess of Craven from whose Trustees purchased for presentation to Tate 1966.

Thomas Pennant, The Journey from Chester to London, London 1811, p.247 (as by Hals); C.H. Collins Baker, Lely and the Stuart Portrait Painters, vol.1, London 1912, p.196 (as by Soest); Paget Toynbee, ‘Horace Walpole’s Journals of Visits to Country Seats, &c.’, Walpole Society, vol.16, 1928, pp.10, 63 (noted in 1768, as by Hals); Tate Gallery Report 1966–7, London 1968, pp.16–17; Oliver Millar, Sir Peter Lely 1618–80, exhibition catalogue, National Portrait Galley, London 1978, pp.10, 41; Martin Butlin, Aspects of British Painting 1550–1800, Houston 1988, p.38.

This work, along with Boy Playing a Jew’s Harp c.1648 (Tate T00884) and three other paintings by Lely of people playing musical instruments, was first recorded at Coombe Abbey in Warwickshire in the inventory drawn up after the death of William, 3rd Baron Craven (1700–1739) at which time they were all attributed to the Haarlem painter Frans Hals (1580 or 1585–1666).1 Visiting this house in September 1768, Horace Walpole noted ‘a Lady, and three [sic] Musicians, by Francis Halls’.2 They seems subsequently to have been attributed to Gerard Soest,3 but in the mid-twentieth century they were recognised by Sir Oliver Millar as being characteristic of the early work of Sir Peter Lely. The other three works are A Girl Playing a Theorbo-Lute, A Man Playing a Violin and A Young Man Playing an Eleven-course Lute.4

Nothing is known of the circumstances in which this group of paintings was produced. William, 1st Baron and Earl of Craven (1608–1697), as well as having a collection of his own, held paintings in trust from Prince Rupert, son of Elizabeth of Bohemia (1596–1662) for his mistress, Margaret Hughes and their daughter Ruperta.5

It is not clear whether some or all of this group were intended to be portraits, or whether they were to be viewed as genre images of anonymous music-makers. In the present work, the man is playing a recorder-like instrument. In Dutch paintings of this period such an instrument often had erotic connotations. Music was linked with sensuality, and the pipe and the flute were sometimes seen as male sexual symbols, or metaphors for sexual activity.6

Images showing half- or three-quarter-length figures playing musical instruments became popular with the Netherlandish artists who had visited Italy and who had been influenced by similar paintings by Caravaggio (1571–1610) and his followers. They included the Utrecht artists Dirck van Baburen (c.1595–1624) and Gerrit van Honthorst (1590–1656). Starting in Utrecht from the early 1620s onwards, such works became increasingly widespread in the Netherlands, and were produced, for instance, by the Haarlem painters Frans Hals and Judith Leyster (1609–1660). The sitters were often shown in fanciful costumes that purported to be peasant dress.

Sir Peter Lely was born to a Dutch family in Soest, Westphalia, in 1618. After training in Haarlem he moved at the beginning of the 1640s to England, where the Civil War was in progress. There, initially, he painted narrative pictures showing figures in a landscape, often of classical subjects of the kind for which there was a considerable market in the Netherlands. Some of these included musical elements, such as the signed and dated Music Lesson 1654, in which a young woman plays a five-stringed guitar while a young man leans towards her in song (collection of Lord Dulverton),7 and the so-called Concert (Courtauld Gallery, London).8 In London, Lely had the opportunity to see many examples of the work of the recently deceased Sir Anthony van Dyck (1599–1641) whose portraits had transformed the public image of Charles I’s court. The market for art in Britain at this period was almost entirely for portraiture, and Lely increasingly concentrated on that field, absorbing the influence of van Dyck and steadily lightening and brightening his own palette. At the Restoration of the Stuart monarchy in 1660, Lely was to become the principal court portrait painter.9

Karen Hearn
May 2001


1 ‘Five Italian Musicians by Francis Halls’ were recorded on the staircase next to the billiard room at Coombe Abbey in the inventory dated 17 September 1739, cited in Oliver Millar, Sir Peter Lely 1618–80, exhibition catalogue, National Portrait Galley, London 1978, p.41.
2 See Paget Toynbee, ‘Horace Walpole’s Journals of Visits to Country Seats, &c.’, Walpole Society, vol.16, 1928.
3 See C.H. Collins Baker, Lely and the Stuart Portrait Painters, vol.1, London 1912.
4 Sold Sotheby’s, London, 27 November 1968 (83–5) where purchased by Dr Daniel McLean McDonald, by whose executors subsequently sold Christie’s, London, 20 November 1992 (6–8). It is possible that a sixth image of a musician by Lely, A Man Playing the Violin, now in the Collection of the Sarah Campbell Blaffer Foundation, Texas, may once have been part of the same group. See Martin Butlin, Aspects of British Painting 1550–1800, Houston 1988.
5 When Walpole visited the Craven collection in 1768, most of the pictures that he particularly noted were portraits relating to Elizabeth of Bohemia’s family. See Toynbee 1928.
6 Edwin Buijsen and Louis Peter Grijp (eds.), Music and Painting in the Golden Age, The Hague and Zwolle 1994, pp.13–15.
7 Millar 1978, p.48, no.24, reproduced.
8 Ibid., p.40, no.11, reproduced.
9 Oliver Millar and Diana Dethloff, ‘Sir Peter Lely’, in Jane Shoaf Turner (ed.), The Dictionary of Art, vol.19, London and New York 1996, pp.119–25.