'Liminal 174', is one of a series of recent paintings. It has the uncanny appearance of both substance and immateriality. Liminal means relating to a threshold of perception. Here it is unclear at first whether the surface is pitted and textured, or whether it is flat and these effects are created illusionistically. This optical experience and the surface of the painting have become its subject. The work was made by scattering loose metallic pigment onto thickly applied, pliant silicone and silicone pigment. The artist then agitated it with a palette knife and used a stream of hot air from a spray gun to move the paint into a series of craters and gullies.