- Sir William Nicholson 1872–1949
- Oil paint on plywood
- Support: 648 x 777 mm
frame: 559 x 697 x 34 mm
- Presented by Miss H. Stocks 1989
This oil painting by William Nicholson shows a view from the hills above Malaga, southern Spain. Two preliminary studies for this work, an initial sketchbook drawing (Tate T05521) and a small oil sketch executed en plein air (Tate T07527), are also in the Tate's collection. The three pictures derive from a visit made to the distinguished zoologist Sir Peter Chalmers Mitchell (1864-1945) at his house, the Villa Santa Lucia in Malaga, from 7 May to 13 June 1935. This was a working expedition during which Nicholson painted about a dozen small oil studies of landscapes, as well as interiors and still lifes. He worked on this painting in his studio at 11 Apple Tree Yard, St James's, after his return to London. Together with other larger paintings made in Britain from on-the-spot studies, these Spanish works were exhibited at the Leicester Galleries in London in June 1936.
While Nicholson most often depicted casual, small-scale subjects such as modest still lifes, corners of rooms, or unimposing tracts of landscape, here he chose the most notable view of a famous landmark, the Malaga bull ring. His enthusiasm for bullfighting was deepened by his relationship with the novelist Marguerite Steen (1894-1975), whom he had met as a fellow guest at the villa and who subsequently became his companion for the remaining fifteen years of his life. Steen was a passionate enthusiast for bullfights, to the extent that she rather disapproved of the Malaga bull ring as provincial. Nicholson had already witnessed a bullfight in Segovia on his first trip to Spain in 1933 and was now taken by Steen to the bullfights at the corrida in Cordoba. 'William was a natural aficonado of the bulls,' she recalled in her biography of the artist. 'He knew nothing, or next to nothing of bullfighting, but all that panorama of colour and movement, that mystic relationship between the man and the bull which is the drama of the bullfight, was as if it existed for him alone He was lost in his own vision (Steen, pp.159-60).
While he was given a studio at the villa, Nicholson more often worked around the house and countryside, drawing with pencil and coloured chalks and painting oil sketches directly from nature. He noticed this view of the bull ring on a walk into the town, instantly recording it with an initial drawing in his sketchbook. Steen's friend Caroline (Lena) Ramsden, a fellow guest at the villa, recalled how 'one morning the three of us set off to walk into town, crossing the hill behind the villa on our way. When we came to within sight of the Bull Ring, William took a sketch book out of his pocket and said, "I'm going to paint that". We left him to it, and, on our way back he showed us the drawing which he eventually gave me' (quoted in Nicholson, p.247). The initial sketch was given as a gift to Ramsden to accompany the final painting which she had purchased from Nicholson before the Leicester Galleries exhibition. She later also acquired the intermediate oil sketch, although whether by gift or purchase is unknown.
The viewpoint in both the oil sketch and the final painting is slightly to the left of that in the drawing, so that the peninsula is not so central and the broad diagonal line of the seafront and port sweep more dramatically in line with the bull ring, echoing its curve. Compared to postcard pictures of the bull ring popular at the time, Nicholson tilted the amphitheatre up slightly, giving the viewer a sense of peering down into the pit much as the spectator would have done. The oil sketch is not squared up for transfer, and it is unclear exactly how it was enlarged for this finished oil. This work is almost exactly twice the size of the sketch and marked with pin holes, suggesting that Nicholson may have used some trick for measuring lengths with a pair of dividers. The key difference in the final work is the introduction of figures in the foreground who enhance the sense of depth and scale. According to Steen, these figures derived from a separate sketch of 'a group of old country-men, hunched on the hillside, watching the corralling of the bulls down in the ring, which was afterwards worked into the bullring landscape' (Steen, p.158).
Unlike his earlier landscapes executed in subdued colours, including the numerous downland scenes at Rottingdean on the Sussex coast where Nicholson lived from 1909 to 1914, and the views of Harlech, North Wales, where he lived towards the end of the First World War, here he employed pale greens, lilacs and peaches to create a delicate effect of glistening light. As Steen later wrote, Nicholson's 'vision of Spain was pale, pale and glittering: silvered, not gilded, by its heat' (Steen, p.158). The arrangement of the landscape around an elliptical shape, in this case the bull ring, is typical of many of Nicholson's paintings which often centred on a geometrical shape such as an avenue, fountain, cup or bowl. Hilary Lane attributes this to Nicholson's fondness for playing with a mahogany bilboquet (a cup-and-ball) and seeing 'the ball fall satisfactorily into the cup thousands of times' ('Looking Through the Paintings' in William Nicholson, Painter: Landscape and Still Life, exhibition catalogue, Towner Art Gallery, Eastbourne 1995, p.33).
The Malaga bull ring, known as La Malagueta, opened in 1874 and was to become a lifelong source of inspiration for Pablo Picasso (1881-1973) who was born and spent his youth in Malaga. Yet while in the 1930s Picasso was harnessing the symbol of the bull for radical ends, to suggest sexual potency, the possibilities of metamorphosis, and even national identity in the wake of the Spanish Civil War (1936-9), Nicholson's engagement with the bullfight and its characters was altogether more detached. His sketches and paintings of the Malaga bull ring are consciously distanced from the violence and spectacle of the sport. Viewed from a distance, they convey the architecture and topography, light and shadow of the landscape. Until his death in 1949 Nicholson rejected radical modern styles, continuing to work in the tradition of nineteenth-century realism learnt from Edouard Manet (1832-83) and James Abbott McNeill Whistler (1834-1903). As Sir John Rothenstein (1901-92), Director of the Tate Gallery from 1938 to 1964, noted, 'his mind, like his eye, was preoccupied wholly with the intimate segments of the surface of the world that came under his minute and affectionate observation' (Modern English Painters: Sickert to Smith, London 1952, I, p.118).
Andrew Nicholson (ed.), William Nicholson, Painter: Paintings, Woodcuts, Writings, Photographs, London 1996, pp.243-9, reproduced p.246 in colour
Marguerite Steen, William Nicholson, London 1943, pp.153-62, reproduced opposite p.174 in colour
William Nicholson: Paintings, Drawings and Prints, exhibition catalogue, Arts Council of Great Britain 1980, pp.34-5, reproduced p.10 in colour
Technique and condition
Painted on plywood panel, the face of the panel was primed with a smoothly finished white gesso.
The oil paint was applied briskly using both brushes and a blade. Paint consistency varied considerably at the time of application: broadly streaked washes to represent the sea; relatively dry impastoed paste in the townscape, modified and elaborated in many areas with blade-fashioned dabs and linear markings. The artist has also employed a sgraffito technique to modify some paint areas, scratching into both wet and dry paints.
One accidental scratch in the sea would appear to have been retouched inside and parallel to the panel edges. The centre of the painting was punctured by fifteen or more pinholes after the paint had dried. How these two last mentioned forms of damage were sustained is open to speculation.
The painting is not varnished. It was found necessary to secure one small flake of paint and the plywood support was generally good and stable.
The heavily moulded frame was most probably chosen or approved by the artist.