Adrian Stokes

Landscape, Blasted Tree

1956

Medium
Oil paint on canvas
Dimensions
Support: 685 x 510 x 19 mm
Collection
Tate
Acquisition
Bequeathed by David Sylvester in honour of Sir Nicholas Serota 2001
Reference
T07800

Summary

Adrian Stokes is best known as the author of books and articles about modern art, particularly on Henry Moore (1898-1986), Ben Nicholson (1894-1982) and Barbara Hepworth (1903-1975), and on the appreciation of Italian Renaissance art and architecture (his namesake, the landscape painter Adrian Stokes 1854-1935, is no relation). He was also a painter of landscape, the nude and still life, depicting his subjects in even tones of warm browns and reds so that they appear indistinct.

Stokes taught himself to paint in the 1930s as a practical extension of his criticism, and learnt also from his first wife, the abstract painter Margaret Mellis (born 1914). He exhibited in London in the 1950s and 60s, but remained a private artist, highly regarded among a circle of intellectuals, but not generally known, and with sufficient private means not to need to sell his work. His writing is abstract and psychoanalytical, concerned with the perception of form. He was a keen admirer of Melanie Klein (1882-1960) whose psychoanalytical thinking informed Stokes's writing.

Late in his life he wrote approvingly of Turner, in a way that might describe his own painting, 'There is a long history of indistinctness in Turner's art, connected with what I have called an embracing or enveloping quality, not least of the spectator with the picture' ('Painting and the Inner World', Gowing, III, p.237). Stokes's paintings depict objects whose substance is rendered indistinct by broken brushwork that conveys a lambent light, dissolving the distinction between form and ground.

In 2001 Tate was bequeathed a group of eight of Stokes's paintings by his friend and admirer, the critic David Sylvester (1924-2001). He had previously lent them in 1993 to Tate's annual 'New Displays' of the Collection, a procedure newly devised in 1990 by the Gallery's director Nicholas Serota, and Sylvester subsequently asked that this bequest should be named in his honour. In 1968 Sylvester had dedicated his catalogue for the Arts Council Henry Moore exhibition to Adrian Stokes.

Further reading:
Adrian Stokes 1902-72, A retrospective, exhibition catalogue, Serpentine Gallery, London 1982.
Lawrence Gowing, ed., The Critical Writings of Adrian Stokes, London, l-III, 1978.

David Jenkins
February 2002

Technique and condition

The primary support for Landscape, Blasted Tree is linen canvas stretched over a pine stretcher. The canvas is a fine, 1 x 1, plain weave fabric with a black stamp on the reverse reading, Winsor & Newton’s Prepared Canvas. R.114. London England. The expandable stretcher has four members with non-mitred, mortise and tenon joints. The canvas was commercially prepared with a layer of size, probably animal glue, and given one layer of priming. This off-white oil priming is thinly and evenly applied. It covers the thread interstices but the canvas texture is still apparent.

The muted shades of oil paint were applied to the front face of the canvas only. Thin washes of colour were brush applied in superimposed layers. The brushwork is vigorous in application, softened with blending on the surface. The paint is generally semi-transparent with some spots of opaque paint.There are areas of low, textured paint and the canvas weave is apparent. The surface has a soft, slightly patchy sheen.

The painting is in generally good condition. There were some deformations caused by impact with the stretcher bars and there were a few dents and draws. The surface was coated with grime. There were a few abrasions around the edges of the painting.

The painting was surface cleaned front and back. The work underwent a series of flattening treatments to remove the dents and reduce the over deformations. This was partially successful. Additional staples were added to the tacking edges to hold and improve the stretch. A padded insert was placed between the canvas and the backboard to assist in preventing further damage.

Patricia Smithen
Auguts 2003