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This sheet and Tate D25331 (Turner Bequest CCLXIII 209) are closely related variants evoking a spectacular sunset. Gerald Wilkinson has described them as ‘concentrated on what seems to be the struggle of the colours of fire and blood against the encroaching purple of night, or death. There are many indications in his notebooks that Turner thought of his colours in just such terms.’1 This echoes John Ruskin: ‘The scarlet of the clouds was his symbol of destruction. In his mind it was the colour of blood.’2
Andrew Wilton has observed that the ‘rich colour and full-bodied paint suggest a date in the 1820s, rather than later’, comparing this study with Tate D25334 (Turner Bequest CCLXIII 212), associated with the ‘Little Liber’ series3 (see ‘Little Liber c.1823–6’ in the present catalogue). In regarding this sheet as dating from a little later in the 1820s, Ian Warrell has noted that such studies, with their ‘understanding gained through the kind of colour chiaroscuro’ seen here, informed the ‘richness’4 of the skies in paintings of the period such as Ulysses Deriding Polyphemus – Homer’s Odyssey, exhibited in 1829 (Turner Bequest, National Gallery, London),5 as well as informing the atmospheric effects of topographical watercolours in the Rivers of England and Picturesque Views in England and Wales series of the 1820s and 1830s.6
Wilkinson 1975, p.147; see also Robinson 1989, p.48.
E.T. Cook and Alexander Wedderburn (eds.), Library Edition: The Works of John Ruskin: Volume V: Modern Painters: Volume III: Containing Part IV: Of Many Things, London 1904, p.438 footnote.
Wilton 1975, p.71.
Ian Warrell, Turner: The Fourth Decade: Watercolours 1820–1830, exhibition catalogue, Tate Gallery, London 1991, p.11.
Martin Butlin and Evelyn Joll, The Paintings of J.M.W. Turner, revised ed., New Haven and London 1984, pp.183–5 no.330, pl.331 (colour).
Warrell 1991, p.41.
Blank; inscribed by John Ruskin in pencil ‘AB 79P | O’ bottom right; inscribed in pencil ‘CCLXIII’ (sic) bottom right.