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Technique and condition
This lecture diagram on white wove Whatman paper shows four identical columns topped by an entablature, and the cast shadow of another part of the building. The basic structure consists of the four columns, the entablature and the blocks of the wall behind the colonnade marked in behind three of the columns: this composition is an upper copy of a lost original, as is Tracing of Guiding Lines (Tate D17132; Turner Bequest CXCV 161). Another copy from a similar original is Part of Classical Buildings, with Columns (Tate D17141; Turner Bequest CXCV 170).
Each column has been competed differently in brown and grey watercolour washes, to give an unrealistic view, while illustrating possible ways of depicting depth in an image of a building. The colouring implies that the two middle columns lie further back than the outer two. On the left side, this was achieved by using a graded wash on the leftmost column to illustrate its roundedness while leaving its more distant neighbour evenly coloured and less distinctive, and applying the deep shadow over both. On the right side, the nearer column has vertical fluting and the more distant one is plain (or indistinct) and must lie further back, since the shadow does not cut across it. In fact a pale grey shadow painted on at the correct angle implies shading from a more distant portion of the building. All these techniques depend on the artist’s ability to apply accurately an even wash with a hard edge (achievable with fairly dry paper) as well as a graded wash with no sharp transitions, which would be applied to wetter paper, without using so much water that the edge smeared out as it dried. The yellow/brown washes round the detailed structure show how less-controlled washes would be ineffective to depict depth, though even here Turner has – apparently effortlessly – indicated the cast shadow in the leftmost portion with a darker wash.
This work was made by a copying process which Turner used to generate a limited number of copies from other lecture diagrams. It is rare that all or even most stages of the process survive, and there is no complete set in the Turner Bequest, since these materials were presumably transported to and used for a number of lectures over the years. He needed several copies so that he could if he chose illustrate the drawing of a single element such as a column alone, then later with perspectival lines going to a single point, or built up to a colonnade of identical columns, or used to illustrate the way to make a smooth column look three-dimensional by shading. He could also use such a colonnade to form part of the elevation of a building, as in this example.
Finberg mistook the subject of this diagram for the colonnade of Carlton House, London, for which see Diagram 8/9 (Tate D17143; Turner Bequest CXCV 172). Instead, it is a side elevation of a classical stoa or portico based on plates published in James ‘Athenian’ Stuart’s and Nicholas Revett’s The Antiquities of Athens (1762, vol.I, chap.V, pls.II and IV). It is one of three diagrams made by Turner from these illustrations for his lectures as Professor of Perspective at the Royal Academy (see also Tate D17140 and D17141; Turner Bequest CXCV 169, 170). Stuart and Revett describe the building as one ‘commonly supposed to be the remains of the Temple of Jupiter Olympus’ (the Olympieion).
After presenting his second illustration, a side elevation rendered in simple outline (D17141), Turner shows another view of the same building, now with colour and shading. He hopes his examples will deter students from applying atmospheric perspective to their geometric drawings in a quest to receive the Academy’s prize ‘Premium’ in architecture.1 While these pictorial effects lend the scene more spatial depth, the drawing still does not convey the number of columns along the building’s front. Hence Turner argues that geometric drawings and perspective views, while equally important, should remain separate.
Turner does not discuss Stuart and Revett’s plan or elevations in the version of Lecture 1 delivered in 1811, although a reference to ‘Stuart’s Athens Drawing’ pencilled in the margins of the text indicates that he may have introduced the topic in subsequent re-workings of the material.2 A later manuscript also used for lecturing refers directly to all three diagrams.3 Turner also discusses the material in lecture manuscript titled ‘Light, Shade, and Reflexies’.4 There is a preliminary sketch in a manuscript filled with Turner’s notes.5
Turner, ‘Royal Academy Lectures’, circa1807–38, Department of Western Manuscripts, British Library, London, ADD MS 46151 J folio 12.
Turner, ‘Royal Academy Lectures’, circa 1807–38, Department of Western Manuscripts, British Library, London, ADD MS 46151 K folio 13.
Turner, ‘Royal Academy Lectures’, circa 1807–38, Department of Western Manuscripts, British Library, London, ADD MS 46151 J folio 13.
Private collection, folio 21–22.
Turner, ‘Royal Academy Lectures’, circa 1807–38, Department of Western Manuscripts, British Library, London, ADD MS 46151 BB folio 33.
Indications of transfer process (see Tate D40015).
Supported by The Samuel H. Kress Foundation
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