Joseph Mallord William Turner

Part of the Façade of St Peter’s, Rome, with the Arco delle Campane

1819

In Tate Britain

Prints and Drawings Room

View by appointment
Artist
Joseph Mallord William Turner 1775–1851
Medium
Gouache, graphite and watercolour on paper
Dimensions
Support: 368 x 231 mm
Collection
Tate
Acquisition
Accepted by the nation as part of the Turner Bequest 1856
Reference
D16332
Turner Bequest CLXXXIX 6

Display caption

The soaring vertical thrust of Michelangelo's portico is emphasised in scale and grandeur by the tiny figures in the foreground. Turner's study is both detailed and dramatic. He has combined careful scrutiny of the work of a master architect with an inspired fantasy reminiscent of Piranesi's celebrated prints of Rome.

Gallery label, August 2004

Catalogue entry

The subject of this coloured sketch is the southern (left-hand) end of the façade of St Peter’s in Rome. The great arched opening, known as the Arco delle Campane (Arch of the Bells), stands beneath the great bell of the basilica and one of two clocks designed by Valadier which crown the front of the basilica. Leading through to the Via della Sagrestia, today it is one of three main entrances to the Vatican and is permanently guarded by Swiss Guards. To the left of the composition can be seen part of the Charlemagne Wing of Bernini’s colonnade, whilst on the right are the steps leading to the doors of the basilica. A sketch depicting the view looking away from the Arco delle Campane in the opposite direction, east across St Peter’s Square, can be found in the St Peter’s sketchbook (see Tate D16227; Turner Bequest CLXXXVIII 40a).
The composition of Turner’s watercolour is designed to convey a sense of overwhelming size and grandeur symbolising, not only the physical presence of St Peter’s, but also the power and majesty of Rome and the Catholic church.1 The perceived immensity of the building is enhanced by the presence of the three tiny figures in the foreground, whom Cecilia Powell has described as a ‘lone cleric approaching St Peter’s, a minute slip of a contadina and a solitary loafer on its steps’.2 Andrew Wilton has argued that despite the dramatic ‘Piranesian’ sense of scale and the stylistic similarities to Italian souvenir views by artists such as Giovanni Volpato (1723–1803) or Carlo Lebruzzi (1748–1817), Turner’s vision of St Peter’s is entirely original and fresh.3 Like many drawings within this sketchbook, the view has been executed over a washed grey background which the artist has further worked up with watercolour and gouache.
1
Powell 1998, p.50.
2
Ibid.
3
Wilton 1980, p.115 and Wilton 1975, p.54.
Verso:
Blank; inscribed by unknown hands in pencil ‘6’ centre and ‘CLXXXIX.6 bottom right, and stamped in black ‘CLXXXIX 6’ bottom centre.

Nicola Moorby
October 2009

Read full Catalogue entry

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