American Abstract Expressionist painter, born in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania. Studied painting in the Art Department, Boston University, 1931-5 and at Heatherley's School in London 1937-8, then settled in New York. Began by painting views of New York in the tradition of Sloan and Glackens, and also portraits and seated figures. Some of his works from c.1946 were abstract or had a Cubist structure; began in 1950 to make vigorous large-scale calligraphic abstract paintings in black and white. His first one-man exhibition at the Egan Gallery, New York, in 1950 quickly led to his recognition as one of the leading Abstract Expressionists. From 1958 he introduced strong colours into some of his works. Died in New York.
Ronald Alley, Catalogue of the Tate Gallery's Collection of Modern Art other than Works by British Artists, Tate Gallery and Sotheby Parke-Bernet, London 1981, p.390