French draughtsman-satirist, painter, etcher and lithographer. Born in Rheims, son of a house-painter. Studied for a year with J. de la Chevreuse and briefly under Gérôme at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. Copied drawings and etchings in the Louvre and the Bibliothèque Nationale; also studied modelling for a year under Carpeaux. First began to paint in the studio of André Gill in 1870. Became a friend and disciple of Degas and contributed to four of the last Impressionist exhibitions 1879-86. From 1887-90 became a prolific and famous contributor of satirical drawings of Parisian life and later political satire to Le Courrier Français , Le Figaro and other papers, accompanying the drawings by his own biting captions; also published two papers of his own, Fifre 1889 and (with Caran d'Ache) the anti-Dreyfus Psst...! 1898-9. First one-man exhibition at the Galerie Boussod-Valadon, Paris, 1890. After c.1900 he painted a number of law-court scenes influenced by Daumier, and in darker tones. Died at Le Chesnay, near Versailles.
Ronald Alley, Catalogue of the Tate Gallery's Collection of Modern Art other than Works by British Artists, Tate Gallery and Sotheby Parke-Bernet, London 1981, p.222