German painter, etcher and lithographer. Born in Tapiau, East Prussia. 1876-80 studied at the Königsberg Academy, then from 1880 at Munich under Loefftz. 1884-7 a pupil of Bouguereau at the Académie Julian in Paris. Influenced by Rembrandt, Hals and Rubens. In the next years in Königsberg and then Munich active mainly as a painter of portraits and nudes, but also of occasional religious compositions. Moved in 1901 to Berlin where he became with Liebermann and Slevogt one of the leaders of German Impressionism. First one-man exhibition in 1913 organised by Paul Cassirer in the rooms of the Berlin Secession and in 1915 was made President of the Secession. Suffered partial paralysis as the result of a stroke in 1911, his later work becoming more agitated and expressionistic, with frenzied brushstrokes. From 1918 spent the summers in Urfeld by the Walchensee (Bavaria), where he painted a number of landscapes. Died in Zandvoort, Holland.
Ronald Alley, Catalogue of the Tate Gallery's Collection of Modern Art other than Works by British Artists, Tate Gallery and Sotheby Parke-Bernet, London 1981, p.131