American painter, first of figure compositions, later of more abstract works. Born in New York. Studied at the National Academy of Design, New York, 1935-6, the Art Students League 1937-8, the Richmond Division of the College of William and Mary 1938-9, and at the State University of Iowa under Philip Guston 1939-42 and 1944-5. Influenced first by Northern European painting of the early Renaissance and by Max Beckmann, and painted figure compositions symbolic of the tragic limitations and psychological state of modern man, using allusions to biblical themes such as the Crucifixion, the Flagellation, etc. First one-man exhibition at Durlacher Bros., New York, 1947. While in Rome 1952-4 on a Prix de Rome scholarship, began to introduce an intense light and more painterly brushwork, and to integrate figures and ground. Artist-in-Residence at Princeton University 1956-9. Since the late 1950s his paintings have become more abstract, with residual imagery of human anatomy or mechano-morphic forms, and emotive colour. Teaches at the Tyler School of Art, Temple University, and lives at Valley Cottage, New York.
Ronald Alley, Catalogue of the Tate Gallery's Collection of Modern Art other than Works by British Artists, Tate Gallery and Sotheby Parke-Bernet, London 1981, p.338