IN August 1822, the year after his coronation, George IV paid a two-week state visit to Edinburgh, the first by a British monarch since the Act of Union of 1707. The Royal Squadron arrived at Leith on 14 August and George IV landed the following day, staying at the Palace of Holyrood until 29 August. The visit was staged by Sir Walter Scott. A number of artists attended the occasion, including Turner, who seems to have been in Edinburgh as early as 7 August (he was definitely there by 14 August) and was presumably there until the end of the royal visit.
Turner used two sketchbooks in Edinburgh, the ‘King's Visit to Scotland’ sketchbook (CC) and the ‘King at Edinburgh’ sketchbook (CCI), the latter containing a double-spread of nineteen rough composition sketches (p. 44 verso and inside back cover; both sketchbooks are repr. in full in Finley 1981); four of these can be linked with paintings in the Turner Bequest, two long identified with this visit (Nos. 247 [N02857] and 248 [N02858]), the other two only recently identified by Finley, a discovery reflected in the exhibition and accompanying book of Turner and George the Fourth in Edinburgh, 1822, 1981–2.
All four paintings are on panel, relatively unusual for Turner, two being approximately 2 1/2 inches higher than the others. It is uncertain how many pictures Turner would have completed had the scheme been fulfilled. It is also uncertain why the scheme was abandoned but the reason is hinted at in a letter of 3 December 1823 to J.C. Schetky. From this it appears that Schetky had offered Turner the use of one of his drawings of the Royal Barge, only roughly sketched by Turner during his visit, but, so Turner writes, ‘there is an end to that commission owing to the difficulty attending engraving the subjects’ (Gage loc. cit.). Turner had presumably abandoned work on the paintings by this time.
Lit. Finley 1975, pp. 27–35; Gage 1980, p. 90; Finley 1981.
248b. [N02880] George IV's Departure from the ‘Royal George’ c. 1822
THE TATE GALLERY, LONDON (2880)
Mahogany, 29 5/8 × 36 3/16 (75 × 92)
Coll. Turner Bequest 1856 (151, one of ‘3 each (panel)’ 3'0" × 2'6"; identified by chalk number on back); transferred to the Tate Gallery 1919.
Exh. On loan to the Ulster Museum 1964–9; Tate Gallery and Edinburgh 1981–2.
Lit. MacColl 1920, p. 42; Gage 1980, p. 90; Finley 1981, pp. 32–3, 43, 49, pl. 15.
The subject, as has been suggested by Gerald Finley, seems to show George IV setting out from the Royal George on the Royal Barge on 15 August 1822 before landing at Leith, the subject of No. ‘2’ of the series of small composition sketches. The composition also seems to be based on a drawing in the ‘King at Edinburgh’ sketchbook (CCI-1), with the bulk of the Royal George seen end on on the right. It was presumably for this painting that Turner needed J.C. Schetky's sketch of the Royal Barge. MacColl had related this oil to a watercolour sketch in the Turner Bequest (CCLXIII-384, repr. exh. cat., R.A. 1974–5, p. 97 no. 255) but it is not particularly close.
In the first edition of this catalogue this painting appeared as No. 278, ‘Shipping with a Flag’, and was dated ‘c. 1825–30?’.
There are small losses to the panel lower left 1/4 × 5 (0·75 × 12·5), and lower right 1/8 × 3/4 (0·25 × 2).
Martin Butlin and Evelyn Joll, The Paintings of J.M.W. Turner, revised ed., New Haven and London 1984