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In this night scene, Varley used black chalk to outline the image. Forms were then filled in with a softer black chalk that has been smudged with a finger or stump. Varley seems to have reworked some of these areas further by going over them with a wet brush to disperse the pigment particles. The drawing has been subtly heightened with what initially appeared to be white chalk. However, closer inspection revealed that it is a white gouache that has been applied virtually dry. Ultraviolet examination revealed that Varley, like Lewis, was using the newly discovered zinc white.

August 2004