J.M.W. Turner: Sketchbooks, Drawings and Watercolours

Liber Studiorum: Designs for Unpublished Plates: nos.72–91 c.1806–24

Turner Bequest CXVIII U, CCLXIII 328; Vaughan Bequest P–T, V–X
The ten drawings and one outline etching with watercolour included in this section are those for Liber Studiorum plates which were engraved to various degrees of completion, but not published. Rawlinson/Finberg no.89, for which no direct study is known, is represented in the Tate Collection by its engraved copper plate, also catalogued here. Parts 13 and 14 of the Liber, comprising the last ten prints of the series to be issued, had appeared in 1819. The unpublished compositions have been codified in the literature since the Burlington Fine Arts Club exhibition catalogue of 1872;1 the sequence, deriving from notes by Charles Stokes2 was adopted by W.G. Rawlinson in the first standard catalogue (1878).3 Some of the drawings appear to date from the early years of the project, and may have been worked up in parallel with other, similar subjects and then rejected. Others show a development towards the concern with chiaroscuro expressed by the experimental manipulation of pure mezzotint in the so-called ‘Little Liber’ plates of the 1820s (see general Liber introduction).
Most of the works in this section came from the Vaughan Bequest. No.79 is an etching with tonal wash; as noted below, a rough drawing for it, which Turner retained, is catalogued elsewhere in the Turner Bequest. No drawings are known for nos.72, 83, 84, 90 or 91, while those for nos.80 and 81 are in other collections; that for no.75 is untraced, and no.78 came to Tate via another collection.
1
[J.E. Taylor and Henry Vaughan], Exhibition Illustrative of Turner’s Liber Studiorum, Containing Choice Impressions of the First States, Etchings, Touched Proofs, together with the Unpublished Plates, and a Few Original Drawings for the Work, exhibition catalogue, Burlington Fine Arts Club, London 1872, pp.[46]–50 nos.72–91.
2
Ibid., p.[46].
3
W[illiam] G[eorge] Rawlinson, Turner’s Liber Studiorum, A Description and a Catalogue, London 1878, pp.142–69, nos.72–91.
Checklist:
The following checklist is in the standard Rawlinson/Finberg order4 (for the full sequence, see the general introduction to the Liber Studiorum). The compositions are listed by their customary titles, with Turner’s categories such as ‘Pastoral’ where established, and suggestions for the others in square brackets. Tate accession numbers and Turner Bequest numbers are given for the original drawings and etching with wash (plus one copper plate) acquired in the Turner and Vaughan Bequests or otherwise, which have individual catalogue entries. Impressions of the related etchings and engravings at Tate are noted, as are later versions of the prints by Frank Short. When the original drawing is not at Tate, brief details are given.
4
Rawlinson 1878; ... Second Edition, Revised Throughout, London 1906; Alexander J. Finberg, The History of Turner’s Liber Studiorum with a New Catalogue Raisonné, London 1924.
Unpublished plates:
72. Apullia in Search of Appullus
EP: no preliminary Liber-type drawing known. Rawlinson noted a drawing in Henry Vaughan’s collection and subsequent bequest to National Gallery5 – not otherwise recorded and not among Vaughan drawings kept with Turner Bequest. Possibly etched directly from painting Apullia in Search of Appullus vide Ovid, exhibited 1814 (Tate N00495),6 derived from Turner’s patron Lord Egremont’s painting by Claude Lorrain, Jacob with Laban and his Daughters (Petworth House, West Sussex).7 For further details, see Finberg8 and Forrester.9 Noted in list of subjects in Liber Notes (2) sketchbook (Tate D12163; Turner Bequest CLIV (a) 27);10 in list of Liber works inside back cover of Aesacus and Hesperie sketchbook (Tate D40933; Turner Bequest CLXIX);11 and with Liber subjects in Farnley sketchbook (Tate D11998; Turner Bequest CLIII 2a).12 Etched by Turner; engraved by William Say; later engraved by Sir Frank Short:13 Tate T0505914
73. Glaucus and Scylla
Historical: Tate D08170; Vaughan Bequest CXVIII P. Etched by Turner; engraved by William Say; print: Tate A01150 (photographic facsimile)
74. Windsor Castle from Salt Hill
Pastoral: Tate D08171; Vaughan Bequest CXVIII Q. Etched by Turner; engraved by Charles Turner (no Tate impression); later engraved by Sir Frank Short: Tate T05060
75. Dumbarton
[?EP]: Preliminary drawing untraced since 1922. For further details, see Finberg15 and Forrester.16 Apparently recorded, in list (rubbed and difficult to decipher) of Liber works inside back cover of Aesacus and Hesperie sketchbook (Tate D40933; Turner Bequest CLXIX).17 Etching attributed to Turner; engraved by Thomas Lupton (no Tate impression); later engraved by Sir Frank Short:18 Tate T0506119
76. Crowhurst
Pastoral: Tate D08172; Vaughan Bequest CXVIII R. Etched by Turner; engraved by Henry Dawe (no Tate impression); later engraved by Sir Frank Short (no Tate impression)
77. The Temple of Jupiter in the Island of Aegina
[?EP]: Tate D08173; Vaughan Bequest CXVIII S. Etching (from related version of the composition) attributed to Turner or Henry Dawe; engraved by Dawe (no Tate impression); later engraved by Sir Frank Short: Tate T04873, T05062, T05063
78. Devil’s Bridge, Mt St Gothard
Mountainous: Tate N03631. Etching attributed to Turner; engraved by Henry Dawe (no Tate impression); later engraved by Sir Frank Short: Tate T05064
79. Ploughing, Eton
Pastoral: Tate D08174; Vaughan Bequest CXVIII T (etching from second plate, with watercolour wash; see also Tate D08100; Turner Bequest CXV 47, catalogued with the Studies for Liber sketchbook). First, abandoned plate etched by Turner; second version etched and engraved by Thomas Lupton, possibly with some etching by Turner (no Tate impression)
80. Pan and Syrinx
Historical: preliminary drawing in the British Museum (1912–10–12–1).20 For further details, see Finberg21 and Forrester.22 Recorded in ‘Historical’ list in Liber Notes (2) sketchbook (Tate D12171; Turner Bequest CLIV (a) 31).23 Etching only, attributed to Henry Dawe: Tate A01151 (photographic facsimile); later engraved by Sir Frank Short:24 Tate T0506525
81. Stonehenge
[?Pastoral]: preliminary drawing in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (59.795). For further details, see Finberg26 and Forrester.27 No etching; engraving attributed to J.M.W. Turner, but possibly by Thomas Lupton (no Tate impression); later engraved by Sir Frank Short (no Tate impression)28
82. The Felucca
[?Marine]: Tate D08175; Turner Bequest CXVIII U. No etching; engraving attributed to Henry Dawe (no Tate impression); later engraved by Sir Frank Short (no Tate impression)
83. The Stork and Aqueduct
[?EP]: no preliminary Liber-type drawing known. Slight pencil sketch along similar lines in Aqueduct sketchbook (Tate D11976; Turner Bequest CLII 2). For further details, see Finberg29 and Forrester.30 Etched by Turner; engraving attributed to Henry Dawe: Tate A01152 (photographic facsimile); later engraved by Sir Frank Short:31 Tate T0506632
84. The Lost Sailor
?Marine: no preliminary Liber-type drawing known. For further details, see Finberg33 and Forrester.34 No etching; engraving attributed to Turner; later copied for John Ruskin (by both engraving and lithography?) by J. Fisher;35 later engraved by Sir Frank Short:36 Tate T0506737
85. Moonlight at Sea
[?Marine]: Tate D08176; Vaughan Bequest CXVIII V. First plate: no etching; engraving attributed to Turner, but probably in collaboration with Henry Dawe: Tate A01153 (photographic facsimile); second plate: etching and mezzotint, possibly by Turner: Tate A01154 (later impression); later engraved by Sir Frank Short (no Tate impression)
86. Moonlight on the Medway
[?Marine]: Tate D25451; Turner Bequest CCLXIII 328. No etching; engraving probably by Henry Dawe (no Tate impression); later engraved by Sir Frank Short: Tate T05068
87. Kingston Bank
Pastoral: Tate D08177; Vaughan Bequest CXVIII W. No etching; engraving attributed to Turner, but probably in collaboration with Henry Dawe (no Tate impression); later engraved by Sir Frank Short (no Tate impression)
88. The Deluge
Historical: Tate D08178; Vaughan Bequest CXVIII X. No etching; engraving attributed to Turner: Tate A01155; later engraved by Sir Frank Short (no Tate impression)
89. Flounder Fishing, Battersea (or Putney)
Pastoral: no preliminary Liber-type drawing known. For further details, see entry for the copper plate: Tate N02782. No etching; engraving attributed to Turner: Tate A01156 (photographic facsimile), A01157
90. Narcissus and Echo
[?EP or Historical]: no preliminary Liber-type drawing known. Based on painting of same title, exhibited 1804 (Tate T03869; displayed at Petworth House, West Sussex).38 For further details, see Finberg39 and Forrester.40 Noted with ‘Historical’ Liber subjects inside back cover of Tabley Sketchbook, No.1 (Tate D40721; Turner Bequest CIII).41 Etched only, by Turner: Tate A01158 (photographic facsimile); later engraved by Sir Frank Short:42 Tate T0506943
91. Sand Bank with Gipsies
[?Pastoral]: no preliminary Liber-type drawing known. Rawlinson noted drawing in Henry Vaughan’s collection and subsequent bequest to National Gallery44 – but not otherwise recorded and not among Vaughan drawings kept with Turner Bequest. Based on painting Sketch of a Bank, with Gipsies, possibly exhibited 1809 (Tate N00467).45 For further details, see Finberg46 and Forrester.47 Soft-ground etching and engraving attributed to Turner: Tate A01159 (photographic facsimile); later engraved by Sir Frank Short (no Tate impression)48
5
Rawlinson 1878, p.144; 1906, p.169.
6
Martin Butlin and Evelyn Joll, The Paintings of J.M.W. Turner, revised ed., New Haven and London 1984, pp.91–2 no.128, pl.134.
7
Ibid., p.92, pl.567.
8
Finberg 1924, pp.287–90 no.72.
9
Gillian Forrester, Turner’s ‘Drawing Book’: The Liber Studiorum, exhibition catalogue, Tate Gallery, London 1996, pp.133–4 no.72.
10
Ibid., p.162 (transcribed).
11
Ibid., p.163 (transcribed).
12
Ibid., p.160 (transcribed).
13
Martin Hardie, The Liber Studiorum Mezzotints of Sir Frank Short, R.A., P.R.E. after J.M.W. Turner, R.A. Catalogue & Introduction, London 1938, p.55 no.18, reproduced p.[87] pl.IV A.
14
Tate Gallery: Illustrated Catalogue of Acquisitions 1986 – 88, London 1996, p.74.
15
Finberg 1924, pp.299–302 no.75; drawing reproduced p.[300].
16
Forrester 1996, p.138 no.75; drawing no.75 i, reproduced.
17
Ibid., p.163 (transcribed).
18
Hardie 1938, pp.56–7 no.20, reproduced p.[89] pl.V.
19
Tate Gallery: Illustrated Catalogue of Acquisitions 1986 – 88, London 1996, p.74.
20
Kim Sloan, J.M.W. Turner. Watercolours from the R.W. Lloyd Bequest in the British Museum, London 1998, p.150.
21
Finberg 1924, pp.319–21 no.80; drawing reproduced p.[320].
22
Forrester 1996, pp.16, 144 no.80; drawing no.80 i, reproduced.
23
Ibid., p.163.
24
Hardie 1938, pp.59–61 no.24, p.61 no.25, reproduced p.[97] pl.IX.
25
Tate Gallery: Illustrated Catalogue of Acquisitions 1986 – 88, London 1996, p.75.
26
Finberg 1924, pp.323–5 no.81; drawing reproduced p.[324].
27
Forrester 1996, p.145 no 81; drawing no.81 i, reproduced.
28
Hardie 1938, pp.61–2 no.26, reproduced p.[105] pl.XIII B.
29
Finberg 1924, pp.331–4 no.83.
30
Forrester 1996, pp.147–8 no 83 (Aqueduct sketchbook cited in error as ‘CLIII’).
31
Hardie 1938, p.63 no.28, reproduced p.[101] pl.XI.
32
Tate Gallery: Illustrated Catalogue of Acquisitions 1986 – 88, London 1996, p.75.
33
Finberg 1924, pp.335–7 no.84.
34
Forrester 1996, pp.149–50 no 84.
35
Forrester 1996, p.149 no.84 ii, reproduced and p.150 note 9 as lithograph (also noting apparently separate etching by Fisher), p.179 as ‘etching and lithograph’.
36
Hardie 1938, p.64 no.29, reproduced p.[93] pl.VII B.
37
Tate Gallery: Illustrated Catalogue of Acquisitions 1986 – 88, London 1996, p.75.
38
Butlin and Joll 1984, p.17 no.18, pl.14 (colour).
39
Finberg 1924, pp.359–61 no.90.
40
Forrester 1996, p.156 no.90.
41
Ibid., p.158 (transcribed).
42
Hardie 1938, pp.68–9 no.35.
43
Tate Gallery: Illustrated Catalogue of Acquisitions 1986 – 88, London 1996, p.76.
44
Rawlinson 1878, p.169; 1906, p.196.
45
Butlin and Joll 1984, p.62 no.82, pl.92.
46
Finberg 1924, pp.363–5 no.91.
47
Forrester 1996, p.157 no.91.
48
Hardie 1938, p.69 no.36, reproduced p.[109] pl.XV.

Matthew Imms
May 2006

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How to cite

Matthew Imms, ‘Liber Studiorum: Designs for Unpublished Plates: nos.72–91 c.1806–24’, subset, May 2006, in David Blayney Brown (ed.), J.M.W. Turner: Sketchbooks, Drawings and Watercolours, December 2012, https://www.tate.org.uk/art/research-publications/jmw-turner/liber-studiorum-designs-for-unpublished-plates-nos72-91-r1131773, accessed 23 August 2014.