J.M.W. Turner: Sketchbooks, Drawings and Watercolours

Liber Studiorum: Parts 11–14 c.1806–18

Turner Bequest CXVIII A, C, D, F, H, J–M, O; Vaughan Bequest CXVIII B, E, G, I, N
The fifteen works included in this section are finished designs, mostly in watercolour, for fifteen of the twenty engravings issued in the four parts of the Liber Studiorum published in early 1816 (parts 11 and 12) and early 1819 (parts 13 and 14), after which publication of the series ceased. A drawing for no.52, recorded in the nineteenth century, is untraced. No drawings are known for nos.55, 62, 66, 69 or 70; no.66 is represented in the Bequest by an impression of Turner’s outline etching, with watercolour.
In 1816, Turner arranged for an advertising flysheet to be inserted in a part of another print series to which he was the major contributor of designs, Picturesque Views on the Southern Coast of England (published 1814–26).1 This was the only known published advertisement for the Liber, and indicated that he still aimed to complete a hundred plates, as originally intended:
Turner’s LIBER STUDIORUM, published February 1, 1816. The eleventh and twelfth numbers of LIBER STUDIORUM, by J.M.W. Turner, R.A. In continuation of the second volume of this work, intended as an illustration of Landscape Composition, classed as follows: Historical, Mountainous, Pastoral, Marine, and Architectural. Each number contains five engravings in mezzotinto; one subject of each class: engraved by C. Turner, W. Say, T. Lupton, H. Daw, and T. Hodgetts. The whole work will be comprised in twenty numbers, forming two volumes; ten numbers of which are published, containing fifty engravings, including some subjects from pictures painted by the author, in the possession of different noblemen and gentlemen. – Proofs £2 2s. each number. Prints, £1 1s. do. – Subscriptions received at Mr. Turner’s, Queen Anne Street, Harley Street.2
Although publication did not continue after 1819, probably for both financial and artistic reasons, Turner continued to prepare plates and further watercolour designs for some years (see general Liber introduction, and subsequent catalogue sections).
1
W[illiam] G[eorge] Rawlinson, The Engraved Work of J.M.W. Turner, R.A., vol.I, London 1908, pp.44–68 nos.88–127.
2
Transcribed: W[illiam] G[eorge] Rawlinson, Turner’s Liber Studiorum, A Description and a Catalogue, London 1878, p.xxx; ... Second Edition, Revised Throughout, London 1906, p.xliv; Alexander J. Finberg, The History of Turner’s Liber Studiorum with a New Catalogue Raisonné, London 1924, p.xxxv; see Gillian Forrester, Turner’s ‘Drawing Book’: The Liber Studiorum, exhibition catalogue, Tate Gallery, London 1996, pp.27, 38 note 3.
Checklist:
The following checklist is in the standard Rawlinson/Finberg order3 (for the full series, see the general Liber Studiorum introduction). The compositions are listed with Turner’s published titles exactly as lettered and punctuated or, when published untitled, with subsequent, customary titles in inverted commas, and with Turner’s categories such as ‘Pastoral’. Tate accession numbers and Turner Bequest numbers are given for the original drawings – or etching with wash (no.66) – acquired in the Turner and Vaughan Bequests, which have individual catalogue entries. Impressions of the related etchings and engravings at Tate are noted, as are Turner’s late paintings inspired by the series, and later versions of the prints by Frank Short and others. When the original drawing is not at Tate, brief details are given.
Part 11: all prints dated 1 January 1816, except no.53
52. Solway Moss.
Pastoral: preliminary Liber-type drawing untraced since 1880. For further details, see Finberg4 and Forrester.5 Slight pencil studies in Scotch Lakes sketchbook 1801 (Tate D03265–D03268; Turner Bequest LVI 179a–181); related pencil drawings with washed-in clouds: Ashmolean Museum, Oxford6 and Fogg Art Museum, Harvard University (1907.16; also called ‘Coast of North Wales’), removed from Smaller Fonthill sketchbook (some pages at Tate; Turner Bequest XLVIII). Recorded in ‘Pastoral’ list in Liber Notes (2) sketchbook (Tate D12160; Turner Bequest CLIV (a) 25a).7 Etched by Turner; engraved by Thomas Lupton: Tate A01015, A01188; later engraved by Thomas Lupton; later engraved by Sir Frank Short (no Tate impression)8
53. (untitled) ‘Solitude’
EP: Tate D08155; Turner Bequest CXVIII A. Etched by Turner; engraved by William Say (dated 12 May 1814): Tate A01112, A01113; late painting by Turner: Tate N01985
54. Mill, near the Grand Chartreuse; – Dauphiny.
Mountainous: Tate D08156; Vaughan Bequest CXVIII B. Etching attributed to Henry Dawe; engraved by Henry Dawe: Tate A01114, A01115; later engraved by Thomas Lupton; later engraved by Sir Frank Short: Tate T05049
55. Entrance of Calais Harbour.
Marine: no preliminary Liber-type drawing known. Possibly etched and engraved directly from painting Fishing Boats Entering Calais Harbour of about 1803 (Frick Collection, New York),9 modifying relative scale and position of some elements. For further details, see Finberg10 and Forrester.11 Recorded in ‘Marine’ list in Liber Notes (2) sketchbook (Tate D12164; Turner Bequest CLIV (a) 27a).12 Etched and engraved by Turner: Tate A01116
56. Dumblain Abbey, Scotland.
Architectural: Tate D08157; Turner Bequest CXVIII C. Etched by Turner; engraved by Thomas Lupton: Tate A01117, A01118
Part 12: all prints dated 1 January 1816
57. Norham Castle on The Tweed. | the Drawing in the Possession of the late Lord Lascells
Pastoral: Tate D08158; Turner Bequest CXVIII D. Etched by Turner; engraved by Charles Turner: Tate A01119, A01120; later engraved by Thomas Lupton; late painting by Turner: Tate N01981
58. (untitled) ‘Berry Pomeroy Castle’
EP: Tate D08159; Vaughan Bequest CXVIII E. Etching attributed to Henry Dawe; engraved by Turner: Tate A01121 (photographic facsimile), A01122; later engraved by Thomas Lupton; later engraved by Sir Frank Short: Tate T05050, T05051
59. Ville de Thun; – Switzerland.
Architectural: Tate D08160; Turner Bequest CXVIII F. Etched by Turner; engraved by Thomas Hodgetts: Tate A01123, A01124
60. The Source of the Arveron in the Valley of Chamouni Savoy.
Mountainous: Tate D08161; Turner Bequest CXVIII G. Etching attributed to Henry Dawe, possibly reworked by Turner; engraved by Turner: Tate A01125 (photographic facsimile), A01126; later engraved by Thomas Lupton; later engraved by Sir Frank Short: Tate T05052
61. Tenth Plague of Egypt
Historical: Tate D08162; Turner Bequest CXVIII H. Etched by Turner; engraved by William Say: Tate A01127, A01128
Part 13: prints dated either 1 January 1816 or 1 January 1819
62. WATER CRESS GATHERERS
Pastoral: no preliminary Liber-type drawing known. Forrester notes ‘artist’s proof touched in sepia and colours’ in an 1865 sale, now untraced; see Finberg13 and Forrester14 for further details. Noted with Liber subjects inside back cover of Liber Notes (1) sketchbook (Tate D40871; Turner Bequest CXLIII);15 again in ‘Pastoral’ list in Liber Notes (2) sketchbook (Tate D12160; Turner Bequest CLIV (a) 25a);16 and in Liber list inside back cover of Aesacus and Hesperie sketchbook (Tate D40933; Turner Bequest CLXIX).17 Etched by Turner; engraved by Thomas Lupton (dated 1819): Tate A01129, A01130
63. (untitled) ‘Isleworth’
EP: Tate D08163; Vaughan Bequest CXVIII I. Etched by Turner; engraved by Henry Dawe (dated 1819): Tate A01131, A01132, A01133
64. Bonneville, Savoy.
Mountainous: Tate D08164; Turner Bequest CXVIII J. Etching attributed to Henry Dawe; engraved by Henry Dawe (dated 1816): Tate A01134, A01135; later engraved by Sir Frank Short: Tate T05053
65. Inverary Castle and Town, Scotland. | the Drawing in the Possession of the Duke of Argyle.
Mountainous: Tate D08165; Turner Bequest CXVIII K. Etched by Turner; engraved by Charles Turner (dated 1816): Tate A01136, A01137
66. Æsacus and Hesperie | Vide Ovid Mets. Book XI.
Historical: Tate D08166; Turner Bequest CXVIII L. Etched and engraved by Turner (dated 1819): Tate A01138, A01139; later engraved by Sir Frank Short: Tate T05058
Part 14: all prints dated 1 January 1819
67. EAST GATE WINCHELSEA Sussex
Pastoral: Tate D08167; Turner Bequest CXVIII M. Etched by Turner; engraved by S.W. Reynolds: Tate A01140, A01141
68. ISIS | Picture in the Possession of the Earl of Egremont.
EP: Tate D08168; Vaughan CXVIII N. Etched by Turner; engraved by William Say: Tate A01142, A01143
69. BEN ARTHUR, SCOTLAND.
Mountainous: no preliminary Liber-type drawing known. For further details, see Finberg18 and Forrester.19 Noted around 1815, as ‘Glen crow Luptons – M’ with Liber subjects inside back cover of Liber Notes (1) sketchbook (Tate D40871; Turner Bequest CXLIII);20 also, as ‘Glen Croe’, in ‘Mountainous’ list in Liber Notes (2) sketchbook (Tate D12166; Turner Bequest CLIV (a) 28a); 21 again, as ‘Glenco Lupton’, in list of Liber works inside back cover of Aesacus and Hesperie sketchbook (Tate D40933; Turner Bequest CLXIX).22 Etched by Turner; engraved by Thomas Lupton: Tate A01144, A01145; later engraved by Sir Frank Short:23 Tate T0505424
70. Interior of a Church.
Architectural: no preliminary Liber-type drawing known. Possibly etched and engraved directly from small painting Interior of a Gothic Church of about 1797 (Tate N05536)25 – derived from study in Wilson sketchbook of similar date (Tate D01143–D01144; Turner Bequest XXXVII 26–27) For further details, see Finberg26 and Forrester.27 (Painting has been cleaned since Butlin and Joll and Forrester described it respectively as ‘very dirty’ and ‘almost illegible’; lighting at soft-ground etching stage can now be seen to relate to it, though mezzotint developed as candle-lit night scene.) Noted with other Liber subjects inside back cover of Liber Notes (1) sketchbook (Tate D40871; Turner Bequest CXLIII);28 and in list of Liber works inside back cover of Aesacus and Hesperie sketchbook (Tate D40933; Turner Bequest CLXIX).29 Etched and engraved by Turner: Tate A01146, A01147
71. CHRIST AND THE WOMAN OF SAMARIA
Historical: Tate D08169; Turner Bequest CXVIII O. Etched by Turner; engraved by S.W. Reynolds: Tate A01148, A01149
3
Rawlinson 1878 and 1906; Finberg 1924.
4
Finberg 1924, pp.205–8 no.52.
5
Forrester 1996, pp.18–19, 113 no.52.
6
Luke Herrmann, Ruskin and Turner: A Study of Ruskin as a Collector of Turner, Based on his Gifts to the University of Oxford; Incorporating a Catalogue Raisonné of the Turner Drawings in the Ashmolean Museum, London 1968, p.90 no.67, pl.XLII F.
7
Forrester 1996, p.161 (transcribed).
8
Martin Hardie, The Liber Studiorum Mezzotints of Sir Frank Short, R.A., P.R.E. after J.M.W. Turner, R.A. Catalogue & Introduction, London 1938, pp.48–9 no.8, reproduced p.[81] pl.I B.
9
Martin Butlin and Evelyn Joll, The Paintings of J.M.W. Turner, revised ed., New Haven and London 1984, p.108 no.142, pl.147 (colour).
10
Finberg 1924, pp.217–20 no.55.
11
Forrester 1996, p.116 no.55.
12
Ibid., p.162 (transcribed).
13
Finberg 1924, pp.245–8 no.62.
14
Forrester 1996, p.124 no.62.
15
Ibid., p.159 (transcribed).
16
Ibid., p.161 (transcribed).
17
Ibid., p.163 (transcribed).
18
Finberg 1924, pp.273–6 no.69.
19
Forrester 1996, p.131 no.69.
20
Ibid., p.160 (transcribed).
21
Ibid., p.162 (transcribed).
22
Ibid., p.163 (transcribed).
23
Hardie 1938, p.51 no.13.
24
Tate Gallery: Illustrated Catalogue of Acquisitions 1986 – 88, London 1996, p.72.
25
Butlin and Joll 1984, p.21 no.24, pl.22.
26
Finberg 1924, pp.277–80 no.70.
27
Forrester 1996, p.132 no.70.
28
Ibid., p.160 (transcribed).
29
Ibid., p.163 (transcribed).

Matthew Imms
May 2006

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How to cite

Matthew Imms, ‘Liber Studiorum: Parts 11–14 c.1806–18’, subset, May 2006, in David Blayney Brown (ed.), J.M.W. Turner: Sketchbooks, Drawings and Watercolours, December 2012, https://www.tate.org.uk/art/research-publications/jmw-turner/liber-studiorum-parts-11-14-r1131757, accessed 02 September 2014.