J.M.W. Turner: Sketchbooks, Drawings and Watercolours

Liber Studiorum: Parts 5–10 c.1806–11

Turner Bequest CXVI Z, CXVII A–K, M–T, W–Z; Vaughan Bequest CXVII L, U
The twenty-seven works included in this section are finished designs, mostly in watercolour, for twenty-six of the thirty engravings issued in the six parts of the Liber Studiorum published between early 1811 and mid 1812, part 10 marking the half-way point of Turner’s intended scheme of a hundred plates (see also general Liber introduction). The Frontispiece plate was issued free to subscribers with part 10, but in the present catalogue its definitive design (an etched outline with watercolour washes: Tate D08150; Vaughan Bequest CXVII V) is dealt with at the beginning of the section for parts 1 to 4, following the precedent of the standard Liber literature.
There are no recorded Liber-type drawings for four of the designs (nos.35, 40, 44 and 50), and that for Windmill and Lock (no.27) is in watercolour over an impression of Turner’s outline etching, no freehand equivalent being known. Bridge and Goats (no.43) is represented in the Bequest by both an original watercolour design and a washed etching. All the known finished designs for these parts remained in the artist’s possession and were included in the Turner Bequest, except no.27, presented by later by W.G. Rawlinson, and nos.36 and 46, bequeathed by Henry Vaughan.
There had been a gap of nearly two years since the appearance of part 4, the last of three to be published by Charles Turner, who had also engraved all the plates up to that point. With part 5, Turner reverted to acting as his own publisher for the rest of the series (see subsequent sections of the catalogue), but there would be a further hiatus of nearly four years before the simultaneous appearance of parts 11 and 12.
Checklist:
The following checklist is in the standard Rawlinson/Finberg order1 (for the full series, see the general Liber Studiorum introduction). The compositions are listed with Turner’s published titles exactly as lettered and punctuated or, when published untitled, with customary titles in inverted commas, and with Turner’s categories such as ‘Pastoral’. Tate accession numbers and Turner Bequest numbers are given for the original drawings – or etchings with wash – acquired in the Turner and Vaughan Bequests or otherwise, which have individual catalogue entries. Impressions of the related etchings and engravings at Tate are noted, as are Turner’s late paintings inspired by the series, and later versions of the prints by Frank Short and others. The designs for which no drawings are known are also briefly discussed.
Part 5: all prints dated 1 January 1811
22. JUVENILE TRICKS
Pastoral: Tate D08127; Turner Bequest CXVI Z. Etched by Turner; engraved by William Say: Tate A00954, A00955
23. (untitled) ‘The Temple of Minerva Medica’
EP: Tate D08128; Turner Bequest CXVII A. Etched by Turner; engraved by Robert Dunkarton: Tate A00956, A00957
24. COAST OF YORKSHIRE. | near Whitby.
Marine: Tate D08129; Turner Bequest CXVII B. Etched by Turner; engraved by William Say: Tate A00958, A00959
25. Hind Head Hill. | On the Portsmouth Road
Mountainous: Tate D08130; Turner Bequest CXVII C. Etched by Turner; engraved by Robert Dunkarton: Tate A00960, A00961
26. London, from Greenwich | Picture in the possession of Walter Fawkes Esqr. of Farnley.
Architectural: Tate D08131; Turner Bequest CXVII D. Etched by Turner; engraved by Charles Turner: Tate A00962, A00963
Part 6: prints variously dated between January and June 1811
27. (untitled) ‘Windmill and Lock’; lettered: From a Picture in the Possession of I.M.W. Turner R.A.
Pastoral: Tate N02941. Etched by Turner; engraved by William Say (dated 1 June): Tate A00964, A00965; later engraved by Thomas Lupton
28. (untitled) ‘The Junction of the Severn and the Wye’
EP: Tate D08132; Turner Bequest CXVII E. Etched and engraved by Turner (dated June): Tate A00966, A00967; later engraved by Thomas Lupton; late painting by Turner: Musée du Louvre, Paris
29. Marine Dabblers
Marine: Tate D08133; Turner Bequest CXVII F. Etched by Turner; engraved by William Say (dated June): Tate A00968, A00969
30. Near Blair Athol Scotland
Mountainous: Tate D08134; Turner Bequest CXVII G. Etched by Turner; engraved by William Say (dated 1 June): Tate A00970, A00971
31. Lauffenbourgh on the Rhine.
Architectural: Tate D08135; Turner Bequest CXVII H. Etched by Turner; engraved by Thomas Hodgetts (dated 1 January): Tate A00972, A00973
Part 7: prints dated either June or 1 June 1811
32. Young Anglers
Pastoral: Tate D08136; Turner Bequest CXVII I. Etched by Turner; engraved by Robert Dunkarton (dated 1 June): Tate A00974, A00975
33. ST. Catherines Hill near Guildford
EP: Tate D08137; Turner Bequest CXVII J. Etched by Turner; engraved by J.C. Easling (dated June): Tate A00976, A00977
34. Martello Towers, near Bexhill, Sussex
Marine: Tate D08138; Turner Bequest CXVII K. Etched by Turner; engraved by William Say (dated June): Tate A00978, A00979
35. Inverary-Pier. Loch Fyne. Morning.
Mountainous: no preliminary Liber-type drawing known. Relates closely to watercolour study derived from the 1801 Scottish tour (Tate D03633; Turner Bequest LX B). For further details, see Finberg and Forrester.2 Subject recorded in Liber Notes (2) sketchbook (Tate D12157; Turner Bequest CLIV (a) 24),3 in draft schedule of first ten parts of the Liber; later in same sketchbook, deleted from ‘Marine’ list (D12164; CLIV (a) 27a), and in ‘Mountainous’ list (Tate D12166; Turner Bequest CLIV (a) 28a).4 Etched and engraved by Turner (dated 1 June): Tate A00980, A00981; late painting by Turner: Yale Center for British Art, New Haven
36. From Spenser’s Fairy Queen
Historical: Tate D08139; Vaughan Bequest CXVII L. Etched by Turner; engraved by Thomas Hodgetts (dated June): Tate A00982, A00983
Part 8: prints variously dated within February 1812
37. Water Mill.
Pastoral: Tate D08140; Turner Bequest CXVII M. Etched by Turner; engraved by Robert Dunkarton (dated 1 February): Tate A00984, A00985; later engraved by Sir Frank Short: Tate T05044, T05045
38. (untitled) ‘Scene in the Campagna’
EP: Tate D08141; Turner Bequest CXVII N. Etched by Turner; engraved by William Say (dated 1 February): Tate A00986, A00987; later engraved by Sir Frank Short: T05046
39. (untitled) ‘The Crypt of Kirkstall Abbey’; lettered: Original Drawing in the possession of John Soane Esqr. R.A. Professor of Architecture
Architectural: Tate D08142; Turner Bequest CXVII O. Etched and engraved by Turner (dated 11 February): Tate A00988, A00989
40. (untitled) ‘The Mildmay Sea Piece’; lettered: Picture in the possession of Sir John Mildmay Bart.
Marine: no preliminary Liber-type drawing known. Apparently relates to lost painting, Fishermen Coming Ashore at Sunset, previous to a Gale, exhibited Royal Academy 1797 (344), untraced since 1860.5 For further details, see Finberg6 and Forrester.7 Recorded in Liber Notes (2) sketchbook (Tate D12157; Turner Bequest CLIV (a) 24)8 in draft Liber schedule; and in same sketchbook, in ‘Marine’ list (D12164; CLIV (a) 27a).9 Etched by Turner; engraved by William Annis and J.C. Easling (dated 11 February): Tate A00990, A00991; later engraved by Sir Frank Short (no Tate impression)10
41. Procris and Cephalus.
Historical: Tate D08144; Turner Bequest CXVII P. Etched by Turner; engraved by George Clint (dated 14 February): Tate A00992, A00993; later engraved by Thomas Lupton; later engraved by Sir Frank Short: Tate T05047
Part 9: all prints dated 23 April 1812
42. Winchelsea, Sussex.
Pastoral: Tate D08145; Turner Bequest CXVII Q. Etched by Turner; engraved by J.C. Easling: Tate A00994, A00995
43. (untitled) ‘Bridge and Goats’
EP: Tate D08146 and D08147; Turner Bequest CXVII R, S. Etched by Turner; engraved by F.C. Lewis: Tate A00996, A00997; late painting by Turner: Tate N02424
44. Calm. | Picture in the possession of J.M.W. Turner.
Marine: no preliminary Liber-type drawing known. Possibly based on one of two oils showing Fishing Boats in a Calm, exhibited at Turner’s gallery 1809,11 or on what was possibly a Liber-type drawing, untraced since 1875. For further details, see Finberg12 and Forrester.13 Recorded in Liber Notes (2) sketchbook (Tate D12157; Turner Bequest CLIV (a) 24)14 in draft Liber schedule; and in same sketchbook, in ‘Marine’ list (D12164; CLIV (a) 27a).15 Etched and engraved by Turner: Tate A00998 (photo-engraved facsimile), A00999; later engraved by Thomas Lupton
45. Peat Bog, Scotland
Mountainous: Tate D08148; Turner Bequest CXVII T. Etched by Turner; engraved by George Clint: Tate A01000, A01001; later engraved by Thomas Lupton; later engraved by Sir Frank Short: Tate T05057
46. Rispah | 2nd,, Book of Samuel. Chap. 21.
Historical: Tate D08149; Vaughan Bequest CXVII U. Etched by Turner; engraved by Robert Dunkarton: Tate A01002, A01003; later engraved by Thomas Lupton
Part 10: all prints dated 23 May 1812 (see also ‘Frontispiece’: Tate D08150; Vaughan Bequest CXVII V; no.1 above)
47. Hedging and Ditching
Pastoral: Tate D08151; Turner Bequest CXVII W. Etched by Turner; engraved by J.C. Easling: Tate A01004, A01005
48. River Wye
EP: Tate D08152; Turner Bequest CXVII X. Etched by Turner; engraved by William Annis: Tate A01006, A01007
49. Chain of Alps from Grenoble to Chamberi
Mountainous: Tate D08153; Turner Bequest CXVII Y. Etched by Turner; engraved by William Say: Tate A01008, A01009; later engraved by Sir Frank Short: Tate T05048
50. Mer de Glace – Valley of Chamouni – Savoy
Mountainous: no preliminary Liber-type drawing known. Possibly etched and engraved directly from watercolour in St Gothard and Mont Blanc sketchbook, from first visit to Alps, 1802 (Tate D04615; Turner Bequest LXXV 23). For further details, see Finberg16 and Forrester.17 Recorded in Liber Notes (2) sketchbook (Tate D12158; Turner Bequest CLIV (a) 24a)18 in draft Liber schedule; and in same sketchbook, in ‘Mountainous’ list (D12166; CLIV (a) 28a).19 Etched and engraved by Turner: Tate A01010, A01011
51. Rivaux Abbey, Yorkshire
Architectural: Tate D08154; Turner Bequest CXVII Z. Etched by Turner; engraved by Henry Dawe: Tate A01012, A01013, A01014
1
W[illiam] G[eorge] Rawlinson, Turner’s Liber Studiorum, A Description and a Catalogue. Second Edition, Revised Throughout, London 1906; Alexander J. Finberg, The History of Turner’s Liber Studiorum with a New Catalogue Raisonné, London 1924.
2
Finberg 1924, pp.137–40 no.35; Gillian Forrester, Turner’s ‘Drawing Book’: The Liber Studiorum, exhibition catalogue, Tate Gallery, London 1996, pp.94–5 no.35.
3
Forrester 1996, p.160 (transcribed).
4
Ibid., p.162 (transcribed).
5
Martin Butlin and Evelyn Joll, The Paintings of J.M.W. Turner, revised ed., New Haven and London 1984, p.2 no.3, pl.3 (impression of the Liber print).
6
Finberg 1924, pp.157–60 no.40.
7
Forrester 1996, pp.100–101 no 40.
8
Ibid., p.161 (transcribed).
9
Ibid., p.162 (transcribed).
10
Martin Hardie, The Liber Studiorum Mezzotints of Sir Frank Short, R.A., P.R.E. after J.M.W. Turner, R.A. Catalogue & Introduction, London 1938, pp.46–7 no.5.
11
Butlin and Joll 1984, p.68 nos.93, 94.
12
Finberg 1924, pp.173–6 no.44.
13
Forrester 1996, pp.105–6 no 44.
14
Ibid., p.160 (transcribed).
15
Ibid., p.162 (transcribed).
16
Finberg 1924, pp.197–200 no.50.
17
Forrester 1996, p.112 no 50.
18
Ibid., p.161 (transcribed).
19
Ibid., p.162 (transcribed).

Matthew Imms
May 2006

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How to cite

Matthew Imms, ‘Liber Studiorum: Parts 5–10 c.1806–11’, subset, May 2006, in David Blayney Brown (ed.), J.M.W. Turner: Sketchbooks, Drawings and Watercolours, December 2012, https://www.tate.org.uk/art/research-publications/jmw-turner/liber-studiorum-parts-5-10-r1131728, accessed 24 October 2014.