An artwork designed to remind the viewer of their mortality and of the shortness and fragility of human life

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  • Pablo Picasso, 'Goat's Skull, Bottle and Candle' 1952

    Pablo Picasso
    Goat's Skull, Bottle and Candle 1952
    Oil on canvas
    support: 892 x 1162 mm frame: 1076 x 1345 x 95 mm
    Purchased 1957 Succession Picasso/DACS 2002

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  • Sarah Lucas, 'Self Portrait with Skull' 1997

    Sarah Lucas
    Self Portrait with Skull 1997
    Inkjet print on paper
    image: 737 x 760 mm support: 760 x 565 mm frame: 910 x 650 x 33 mm
    Purchased 2001 Sarah Lucas

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  • Edward Collier, 'Still Life with a Volume of Wither's 'Emblemes'' 1696

    Edward Collier
    Still Life with a Volume of Wither's 'Emblemes' 1696
    Oil on canvas
    support: 838 x 1079 mm frame: 1004 x 1242 x 70 mm
    Purchased 1949

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Memento mori is a Latin phrase meaning ‘remember you must die’. A basic memento mori painting would be a portrait with a skull but other symbols commonly found are hour glasses or clocks, extinguished or guttering candles, fruit, and flowers.

Closely related to the memento mori picture is the vanitas still life. In addition to the symbols of mortality these may include other symbols such as musical instruments, wine and books to remind us explicitly of the vanity (in the sense of worthlessness) of worldly pleasures and goods. The term originally comes from the opening lines of the Book of Ecclesiastes in the Bible: ‘Vanity of vanities, saith the Preacher, vanity of vanities, all is vanity.’

The vanitas and memento mori picture became popular in the seventeenth century, in a religious age when almost everyone believed that life on earth was merely a preparation for an afterlife. However, modern artists have continued to explore this genre.