J.M.W. Turner: Sketchbooks, Drawings and Watercolours

ISBN 978-1-84976-386-8

Joseph Mallord William Turner Brussels: The Diligence c.1839

Joseph Mallord William Turner 1775–1851
Brussels: The Diligence c.1839
Turner Bequest CCLIX 219
Gouache, pen and ink and watercolour on blue wove paper, 140 x 195 mm
Blind-stamped with Turner Bequest monogram bottom right
Stamped in black ‘CCLIX–219’ bottom right
Accepted by the nation as part of the Turner Bequest 1856
This dynamic scene shows passengers waiting to board a diligence stagecoach at Brussels’s Grand Place. It is based on a pencil sketch in the Spa, Dinant, and Namur sketchbook of the same date (Tate D28043–D28044; Turner Bequest CCLXXXVII 1a–2). As Cecilia Powell writes, this swift pencil jotting was ‘evidently made while Turner was waiting for the diligence that would take him to Louvain at the very start of his 1839 tour’.1
Turner’s fluid handling conveys the bustle and energy of the Grand Place: the passengers and crew mounting and dismounting the coach with luggage in hand. Figures are rendered in abbreviated and impressionistic line, and some are drawn overlapped to evoke a further sense of kinesis. The road is a blurred smudge of grey wash merged with yellow gouache. In all, the swift application of colour and Turner’s loose, summary line give an impression of the drawing having been taken on the spot, though it is believed to have been worked up from the pencil sketch a number of months later. The sense of immediacy and movement, though, is skilfully preserved.
Brussels’s Gothic town hall is at right and highlighted in golden gouache, its intricate architectural detail described with fine pen and brown ink line. The central neo-classical building has been modified from the one recorded in Turner’s preliminary pencil sketch. Its restrained, linear form makes a noticeable counterpoint to the Gothic spectacle of the town hall.
A similar scene to this is found in Tate D24902; Turner Bequest CCLX 66, a gouache, pen and ink drawing also executed on blue paper which depicts a diligence at the high street in Louviers, Northern France. For an earlier drawing of the Grand Place and Town Hall at Brussels see folio nine verso of the Waterloo and Rhine sketchbook of 1817 (Tate D12717; Turner Bequest 9a).
Powell 1991, p.165 no.106.
There are two pencil circles inscribed towards the bottom right of the sheet.

Alice Rylance-Watson
June 2013

How to cite

Alice Rylance-Watson, ‘Brussels: The Diligence c.1839 by Joseph Mallord William Turner’, catalogue entry, June 2013, in David Blayney Brown (ed.), J.M.W. Turner: Sketchbooks, Drawings and Watercolours, Tate Research Publication, November 2014, https://www.tate.org.uk/art/research-publications/jmw-turner/joseph-mallord-william-turner-brussels-the-diligence-r1151013, accessed 25 January 2022.