J.M.W. Turner: Sketchbooks, Drawings and Watercolours

ISBN 978-1-84976-386-8

Joseph Mallord William Turner Landscape and Windmill; Windmill; Walls and Gateway ?in Northern France 1824

Joseph Mallord William Turner 1775–1851
Folio 19 Recto:
Landscape and Windmill; Windmill; Walls and Gateway ?in Northern France 1824
Turner Bequest CCXVI 19
Pencil on white wove paper, 118 x 78 mm
Inscribed in pencil by Turner ‘p[...] C[?al]’ top right; ‘cold Blue dark’ near top left; ‘Corn in Light’ near top right’ ‘Callcott’ centre right; ‘?Douai’ centre (all inscriptions inverted relative to foliation)
Inscribed in blue ink by Ruskin ‘19’ top right
Stamped in black ‘CCXVI–19’ bottom right
Accepted by the nation as part of the Turner Bequest 1856
Drawn with the book turned upside down, these rough and swiftly rendered sketches show a windmill within a landscape and what appears to be city walls or fortifications. Turner has made note of certain colours, such as the ‘dark’ and ‘cold Blue’ of the sky and a field of ‘Corn’ golden in the light. Turner has also inscribed the name of his friend and fellow English landscape artist, Augustus Wall Callcott (1779–1844); a note suggesting that the artist was reminded of aspects of Callcott’s painted landscapes whilst travelling through this region. As the art historian John Gage has written, it was rare for Turner to reference the art of his contemporaries. With the exception of Girtin and nods to Callcott, it was the landscapes of the Old Masters (Claude, Wilson, Gaspard or Cuyp) that Turner usually emulated and ‘project[ed] into the scenes presented to him on his tours’.1
Close to Callcott’s name is a final inscription which appears to read ‘Douai’: this is a northern French town located on the River Scarpe south-east of Calais which Turner may have passed through on his journey to Brussels.

Alice Rylance-Watson
February 2014

Gage 1967, p.97.

How to cite

Alice Rylance-Watson, ‘Landscape and Windmill; Windmill; Walls and Gateway ?in Northern France 1824 by Joseph Mallord William Turner’, catalogue entry, February 2014, in David Blayney Brown (ed.), J.M.W. Turner: Sketchbooks, Drawings and Watercolours, Tate Research Publication, April 2015, https://www.tate.org.uk/art/research-publications/jmw-turner/joseph-mallord-william-turner-landscape-and-windmill-windmill-walls-and-gateway-in-r1174376, accessed 23 May 2022.