J.M.W. Turner: Sketchbooks, Drawings and Watercolours

ISBN 978-1-84976-386-8

Joseph Mallord William Turner Winchelsea, Sussex c.1807-8

Joseph Mallord William Turner 1775–1851
Winchelsea, Sussex circa 1807–8
Turner Bequest CXVII Q
Pencil and watercolour on off-white wove writing paper, 182 x 254 mm
Blind-stamped with Turner Bequest monogram bottom left
Accepted by the nation as part of the Turner Bequest 1856
Etching and mezzotint by Turner and J.C. Easling, ‘Winchelsea, Sussex.’, published Turner, 23 April 1812
Winchelsea lies in East Sussex, a little inland between Hastings and Rye. In the middle ages the population had moved from the coastal flood plain to re-establish the town up the hill on a fortified grid pattern, though it was still subjected to raids by the French. It is at the western end of the Royal Military Canal, under construction between 1804 and 1809, and the Royal Military Road, major defences protecting the neighbouring Romney Marsh area of Kent from the threat of invasion by Napoleon. Turner focuses on the medieval fortifications of the town in this and its companion Liber Studiorum design, East Gate, Winchelsea (apparently the north gate, in fact – see entry for Tate D08167; Turner Bequest CXVIII M). Both compositions are based on tonal pencil and chalk drawings on prepared paper in the Sussex sketchbook of about 1804–6 (in this case, Tate D05762; Turner Bequest XCII 43), and Turner probably thought of them as a pair and may have produced them at about the same time.1 Martello Towers, near Bexhill, Sussex, showing a scene a few miles away, is another Liber composition alluding to the contemporary defence of the South Coast (for drawing see Tate D08138; Turner Bequest CXVII K).
Rawlinson observed a series of ‘sharp contrasts’ in the composition – ‘the steep hill ... against the perfectly level plain; the dark woods against the light gleam of the sky; the thick foliage on the left against the bare tree on the right; the soldier also contrasts with the shepherd, ... and his musket with the boy’s plaything, a kite.’2 Stopford Brooke described the relationship of this to Turner’s other Liber Winchelsea design: ‘In that drawing we see the gate itself and the tower, but in this we have passed through the gate and stand at the top of the hill leading downwards onto the plain. The same flock of sheep ... is seen here going down the hill.’3
Both Rawlinson and Brooke noted Turner’s repeated association of soldiers with Winchelsea;4 Ruskin had described the development5 from the two figures here, to two pairs of women and soldiers in the watercolour Winchelsea, Sussex, and the Military Canal of about 1817 (private collection),6 until a whole regiment is shown, with more women resting by the road, in Winchelsea, Sussex, Soldiers on the March, a watercolour design for Picturesque Views in England and Wales of circa 1828 (British Museum, London, 1958–7–12–429).7 Ruskin saw Turner’s ‘sympathy absolutely infinite’ in the depiction of the ‘soldier’s wife resting by the roadside’ in the present composition,8 while Eric Shanes has read the relationship of the figures to the pairs of living and dead trees as a symbolic portent of the soldier’s own reluctant death, reinforced by a parallel between soldiers and the flock in the distance: ‘like sheep they too must obey orders’.9
The composition is recorded, as ‘9[:] 1 Soldiers’, in the Liber Notes (2) sketchbook (Tate D12158; Turner Bequest CLIV (a) 24a), in a draft schedule of the first ten parts of the Liber (D12156–D12158; CLIV (a) 23a–24a)10 dated by Finberg and Gillian Forrester to before the middle of 1808.11 It also appears later in the sketchbook, as one of ‘Soldiers and Winchelsea +’, in a list of published and unpublished ‘Pastoral’ subjects (Tate D12160; Turner Bequest CLIV (a) 25a). The ‘+’ probably indicates that ‘[East Gate,] Winchelsea’, its companion (published in 1819; see Tate D08167; Turner Bequest CXVIII M), had yet to be engraved; some of these notes (Tate D12160–D12171; Turner Bequest CLIV (a) 25a–31) were apparently made as late as 1818.12
The Liber Studiorum etching and mezzotint engraving, etched by Turner and engraved by J.C. Easling, bears the publication date 23 April 1812 and was issued to subscribers as ‘Winchelsea, Sussex.’ in part 9 (Rawlinson/Finberg nos.42–46;13 see also Tate D08146–D08149; Turner Bequest CXVII R, S, T, Vaughan Bequest CXVII U). Tate holds impressions of the preliminary outline etching (Tate A00994) and the published engraving (A00995). It is one of fourteen published Liber Studiorum subjects in Turner’s ‘Pastoral’ category (see also Tate D08102, D08111, D08116, D08121, D08127, D08136, D08140, D08151, D08158, D08167; Turner Bequest CXVI A, J, O, T, Z, CXVII I, M, W, CXVIII D, M; and Tate N02941).
Forrester 1996, p.103.
Rawlinson 1878, pp.86–7.
Brooke 1885, p.[137].
Rawlinson 1878, p.87; Brooke 1885, p.[137].
Pre-Raphaelitism, in Cook and Wedderburn XII 1904, p.384; see also Shanes 1990, p.77.
Andrew Wilton, J.M.W. Turner: His Life and Work, Fribourg 1979, p.348 no.430; Eric Shanes, Turner’s Rivers, Harbours and Coasts, London 1981, p.20 no.12, pl.12 (colour).
Wilton 1979, p.396 no.821, reproduced.
Cook and Wedderburn XII 1904, p.370.
Shanes 1990, pp.217–18.
Forrester 1996, pp.160–1 (transcribed).
Finberg 1996, pp.13–14.
Forrester 1996, pp.161–3 (transcribed).
Rawlinson 1878, pp.86–96; 1906, pp.101–13; Finberg 1924, pp.165–84.
Technical notes:
The sheet is not watermarked, but its batch has been identified as ‘J Whatman | 1801’.1 The softly modulated sky was applied to wet paper. There is some pencil drawing for details such as the figures and the branches at the upper right; the composition was washed in, followed by brushwork and scratching-out. Fingerprints are evident in the pale washes at the lower left. The overall warm brown colour results from the use of a single burnt sienna pigment.2
Forrester 1996, p.103 (analysis by Peter Bower, acknowledged p.8).
Joyce Townsend, circa 1995, Tate conservation files.

Matthew Imms
August 2008

How to cite

Matthew Imms, ‘Winchelsea, Sussex c.1807–8 by Joseph Mallord William Turner’, catalogue entry, August 2008, in David Blayney Brown (ed.), J.M.W. Turner: Sketchbooks, Drawings and Watercolours, Tate Research Publication, December 2012, https://www.tate.org.uk/art/research-publications/jmw-turner/joseph-mallord-william-turner-winchelsea-sussex-r1131747, accessed 19 June 2024.