American artist, designer and writer. She enrolled at Parsons School of Design, Syracuse, NY, where her teachers included the photographer Diane Arbus and Marvin Israel (b
1924), a successful graphic designer and art director of Harper's Bazaar
, who was particularly encouraging. When Kruger's interest in art school waned in the mid 1960s, Israel encouraged her to prepare a professional . Kruger moved to New York and entered the design department of Mademoiselle
magazine, becoming chief designer a year later. Also at that time she designed book covers for political texts. In the late 1960s and early 1970s she became interested in poetry and began writing and attending readings. From 1976 to 1980 she lived in Berkeley, CA, teaching and reflecting on her own art. In -based images she examined the of power via mass- images, appropriating their and slogans and deconstructing them visually and verbally. Such works as Untitled (You Invest in the Divinity of the Masterpiece)
(photograph, 1.82×1.16 m, 1982; New York, MOMA) exploit an economy of image and text to articulate and undermine the power-based relations established in such media images. Major influences cited by Kruger include films, television and the stereotypical situations of everyday life, and especially her training as a graphic designer. Her messages have been displayed in both galleries and public spaces, as well as on framed and unframed photographs, posters, T-shirts, electronic signboards, billboards and flyposters.
R. Feinstein: ‘The Revenge of Capital: Barbara Kruger and the Fine Art of Selling', A. Mag., lxiii/4 (1988), pp. 46–9
C. Miers, ed.: Love for Sale: The Words and Pictures of Barbara Kruger (New York, 1990)