In this composition on white wove Whatman paper most of the colours have been applied directly to the paper without the aid of an under-drawing, although the figure and the pigs were lightly sketched in graphite pencil at an early stage. This allowed reserves of white paper to be preserved to act later as lights in these areas. The paint was applied to very wet paper in the sky area, though further down it was applied to drier paper to give harder edges to the composition. This is a dark image utilising multiple dense washes for the middle ground, but fewer and thinner washes in the foreground, to create quite intense light/dark contrasts with a fairly limited palette of colours and some washing out for highlights.
Pigments used include: indigo, a brownish red madder lake, Mars orange, yellow ochre, mars orange is a synthetic ochre colour in a brilliant orange shade, used very extensively by Turner throughout his life, in both watercolour and oil medium.
How to cite
Helen Evans, 'Technique and Condition', October 2008, revised by Joyce Townsend, May 2011, in Andrew Wilton, ‘Valle Crucis Abbey, with Dinas Brân 1794–5 by Joseph Mallord William Turner’, catalogue entry, April 2012, in David Blayney Brown (ed.), J.M.W. Turner: Sketchbooks, Drawings and Watercolours, December 2012, https://www.tate.org.uk/art/research-publications/jmw-turner/joseph-mallord-william-turner-valle-crucis-abbey-with-dinas-bran-r1141101, accessed 25 July 2014.