Photography refers to the process or practice of creating a photograph – an image produced by the action of light on a light-sensitive material
- Introduction to photography
- Photographers in focus
- Photography in context
- Other perspectives
- Photography in detail
A photograph can be either a positive or negative image. Most photographs are created using a camera, which uses a lens to focus an object’s visible wavelengths (the light reflected or emitted from it) into a reproduction on a light-sensitive surface of what the human eye would see.
The word photograph was coined in 1839 by Sir John Herschel and is based on the Greek word ‘phos’, meaning ‘light’, and ‘graphê’, meaning ‘drawing’ – so ‘drawing with light.
Types of photography: Non-digital vs. digital
Non-digital photographs are produced using a two-step chemical process: light-sensitive film captures a negative image (colors and lights/darks are inverted) from which a positive image can be made by transferring the negative onto photographic paper (printing).
The advent of digital photography has led to the rise of digital prints. These prints are created from stored graphic formats such as JPEG, TIFF, and RAW. These can then be printed out using printers including inkjet printers, dye-sublimation printer, laser printers, and thermal printers. Inkjet prints are sometimes called ‘giclée’ prints.
The development of photography
Nineteenth century: Eadweard Muybridge
Born in 1830 – around the same time that photography was invented – Muybridge was one of the early pioneers of photography. Tate’s 2010 Muybridge exhibition explored his important contribution to the development of photography.
Early twentieth century: August Sander
In the early twentieth century documentary photography became increasingly important. August Sander pioneered a realist, almost scientific approach based on observation which made him one of the heroes of modern photography.
Mid twentieth century: William Eggleston
Often described as the godfather of colour photography, and known for his rich and complex images of the American South, William Eggleston is largely credited with establishing the acceptance of colour in fine art photography.
Late twentieth century: Chris Killip
Photography changed radically as it became more politically conscious and socially engaged. Chris Killip was at the forefront of a generation of photographers interested in documenting working-class communities in the 1970s and 1980s.
Twenty-first century: Adam Broomberg and Oliver Chanarin
From the early 1990s onward, photography has diversified as photographers have found the freedom to experiment. Contemporary photography is often enigmatic with photographers collecting and making fictions from facts or sometimes facts from fictions. Adam Broomberg and Oliver Chanarin explore the turbulence of the near past, as revealed in archival materials.
How we are: Photographing Britain: Room guide
The room guide for this major survey of photography in Britain provides an introduction to the development of photography from its invention in the 1830s to its use by contemporary artists in the twenty-first century.
An in-focus look at the work of two photographers and the approaches they use to capture and reflect the lives of the people around them.
William Klein: 1950s street photographer
As well as using photography to document the things and people he saw around him every day, William Klein used the medium as an outlet for creativity and experimentation.
In his work from the 1950s onward; blur, graininess and distortion are embraced by Klein as assets which contribute to the raw immediacy and vitality of his images.
In this video Klein talks about his explosive New York street photography that broke the rules and revolutionised the medium.
Nan Goldin: The private made public
‘My work has always come from empathy and love’.
The later twentieth century saw considerable debate around ideas of representation in photography. American photographer Nan Goldin is best known for her honest, personal and sometimes brutal images of the sub-cultural lifestyle of her friends and the communities in which she lived.
In this video she discusses her 2014 book, Eden and After; a collection of portraits taken of children which provide an intimate investigation into the narrative of childhood.
Nan Goldin: Artist’s talk
Video of Nan Goldin’s artist’s talk at Tate Modern in 2007 where she discusses her career and work with Stuart Comer, curator of film at Tate Modern.
In this video photographer Nick Waplington recounts his experiences of working with fashion designer Alexander McQueen, and discusses his own evolution as an artist.
Tate Debate: is photography more expressive than other art forms?
Blog article exploring photography in relation to other art forms.
Exposed: Voyeurism, surveillance and the camera
Online guide to this Tate Modern exhibition which offered a fascinating look at pictures made on the sly, without the explicit permission of the people depicted and included photographs from the late nineteenth century to present day.
Renowned photographer Charlie Phillips visits the Salt and Silver: Early Photography exhibition at Tate Britain and reflects on his own documentation of the Caribbean and West Indian communities in Notting Hill in the 1960s.
What are you looking at?
In this Tate Etc. article Gilda Williams casts an eye over the photographic works of four female artists: Vanessa Beecroft, Nikki S. Lee, Catherine Opie and Collier Schorr, and how they portray the tensions and myths of contemporary America
Six reflections on the photography of Robert Frank
Tate Etc. invited Lou Reed, Ed Ruscha, Mary Ellen Mark, Liz Jobey and Mark Haworth-Booth – and Robert Frank himself – to reflect on the photographs of one of the world’s most influential photographers.
Responses: working with Francesca Woodman at Oriel Davies
Nine young photographers respond to the intimate and moving photographs of Francesca Woodman.
The Flowering of Photography
Tate Etc. article exploring the work of two pioneering practitioners, David Octavius Hill and Robert Adamson, who collaborated on making salted paper prints – a technique that produced photographs that were as much objects as images.
Beyond the Frame: Photography & Experimentation
Audio recording of a Tate seminar in which artists and curators explore how photographers have experimented with processes that push our understanding of the photographic form.
Photography in the Street and Studio video recordings
Video recordings of this Tate Modern symposium which coincided with Tate Modern’s major photography exhibition of the same title, and examined different histories of the photographic portrait, in the street and in the studio.
Photography and the Limits of the Document Symposium: video recordings
Major photographers and filmmakers, and cultural theorists and historians reflect on the photographic document.