William Roberts

Deposition from the Cross

c.1926

Medium
Oil paint on canvas
Dimensions
Support: 495 x 591 x 17 mm
frame: 690 x 790 x 90mm
Collection
Tate
Acquisition
Presented by Blanche Jones 2001
Reference
T07740

Summary

Throughout the First World War (1914-18), Roberts was employed as a gunner in the Royal Field Artillery. On his return to Britain he began to paint scenes characteristic of modern, urban life. The restaurant, dance hall and cinema (Tate T00813) were depicted in bold colours and in a manner expressing his sympathy towards the proletariat of post-war London. Like many artists, including Cedric Morris (1889-1982) and John Nash (1893-1977), who had experienced the horror of the war, he also turned to more traditional subjects.

Deposition from the Cross is one of the few religious paintings that Roberts produced in the years immediately following the war. In 1923 he exhibited The Crucifixion at his first solo exhibition at the Chenil Galleries in London, and a year later drew St Christopher holding Christ in his arms (William Roberts RA, Fitzwilliam Museum, cat.no.17). At the same time as Roberts was painting the Deposition, Stanley Spencer (1891-1959), who had been one of his fellow students at the Slade, was working on The Resurrection, Cookham (Tate N04239), in which men and women are shown emerging from their graves to the earthly paradise of a Berkshire village. Both Roberts and Spencer may have chosen to depict a Biblical subject in response to the horror and suffering they had experienced throughout World War I.

Like Spencer, Roberts portrays the religious event in a contemporary setting. Each figure in the composition takes an active part in taking Christ down from the cross and lowering him to the ground. The only exception is the woman to the left of the painting who is shown lamenting Christ's death. Roberts may have intended this figure to be identified with the Virgin Mary or the Mary Magdalene who are both present in traditional representations of the subject.

In 1914 Roberts had met Percy Wyndham Lewis (1882-1957) and subsequently became one of the signatories of the Vorticist Manifesto in the first volume of Blast. The bold, belligerent attitudes expressed in the magazine reflected the confidence and aspirations of this group in the face of an industrialised world. Although short-lived, the pervasive influence of this movement on Roberts is demonstrated by the distortion of the figures, juxtaposition of strong colours and angular structure of the composition. Describing Roberts in 1927, one year after this painting, William Gaunt wrote 'You cannot live in great cities, where all shapes are geometrical, and there are strange and intricate mechanisms on every hand, which have no natural significance, without at least a few people being affected by their character. Roberts has evidently been so affected' (quoted in Corbett, p.86).

Further reading:
David Peters Corbett, The Modernity of English Art 1914-30, Manchester, 1997
William Roberts ARA: Retrospective Exhibition, exhibition catalogue, Arts Council, London, 1965
William Roberts RA: Watercolours, Drawings and Etchings, exhibition catalogue, Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, 1985

Heather Birchall
February 2002

Technique and condition

A painting in the typical 'post-Vorticist' phase of Robert's career. This painting comprises a commercially prepared artist's canvas, the composition then drawn onto the surface with a pencil. The artist has then superimposed thin layers of artist's oil paint to create a balanced and generally well-executed composition. The surface of the painting is broken in places by disturbing diagonal ductile cracks. Some minor flaking in the top right corner of the work suggests compromised adhesion between the priming and the paint layers.

The earthy palette brings to mind the tonality of other paintings from this period such as The Connoisseur and Bank Holiday in the Park both of 1921, and of later paintings such as Battle of the Amazons. There are clever colour devices used to exacerbate the tension of the subject such as the occasional use of a bright purple, a deep crimson and acid green. These colours cut through the earth ones like the wounds in Christ's body.

Rachel Barker
June 2001