Not on display
- Zarina Hashmi 1937 – 2020
- Cast paper
- Object: 597 × 603 × 19 mm
- Purchased with funds provided by the South Asia Acquisitions Committee 2013
Fence is one of a group of wall-based sculptures, each made from paper pulp that has been moulded and shaped by the artist. This particular work in the series is square in format and features a corrugated border consisting of evenly spaced straight lines of roughly equal length. The central part of the sculpture is smooth. It is a warm slate grey colour, a tone achieved by applying graphite to the surface of the paper pulp. The other works owned by Tate in this series are I Whispered to the Earth 1979 (Tate T13727), Wall II 1979 (Tate T13728) and Pool I (Terracotta) 1980 (Tate T13730).
Zarina Hashmi was born in India but left her home country in 1958, living in various places across the world before settling permanently in New York in 1975. She is primarily known as a printmaker, having trained under the renowned English painter and printmaker S.W. Hayter (1901–1988) at Atelier 17 in Paris in 1963–7. Her work shows a deep and longstanding engagement with books and paper that is rooted in her father’s job as a history professor, his love of storytelling and Hashmi’s experience of growing up in a house filled with books. Hashmi’s paper pulp sculptures, including Fence, were made in New York in 1979–80, and were fabricated using a technique she had developed following her return to India from Paris in 1967. At this time, Hashmi had begun working with handmade paper and made a trip to Sanganer, a small village near to Jaipur where paper is made using sixteenth-century production methods. Having witnessed the paper’s production and seen the material in its liquid form – being pulled out of large vats and spread across screens – Hashmi realised its potential as a casting medium. She began to produce deep relief moulds of her own, into which pulped paper was poured, pressed by hand and left to dry.
In 1979 – the year she began the sculptural series that includes Fence – Hashmi taught papermaking classes at the Feminist Art Institute of New York, for which she researched the history, geography and chemistry of paper. However her interest in the material goes beyond its cultural importance and its formal properties: Hashmi considers paper to be a substance with a life and character of its own, and has likened it to skin, stating that ‘it can be stained, pierced and moulded and it still has the capability of breathing and aging. It has a fragility and resilience that lasts through time.’ (Quoted in S. Kalidas, ‘Radiant Transits of Zarina Hashmi’, The Hindu, 5 February 2011, http://www.thehindu.com/arts/magazine/article1159045.ece, accessed August 2012.)
Since her departure from India in 1958 with her husband Saad Hashmi, a military officer engaged in international diplomacy, the artist has moved frequently between cities, countries and continents. Immediately after her departure, her family was required to relocate due to the partition of India and Pakistan, moving from Delhi in India to Karachi in Pakistan, resulting in the loss of the family home. As such, themes of the house and home play an important part in Hashmi’s work. Hashmi has said: ‘Home is the centre of my universe; I make a home wherever I am.’ (Zarina Hashmi, ‘A Conversation with Zarina in New York with Geeti Sen’, in Gallery Espace 2006, p.13.)
Despite their apparent abstraction, the geometrical shapes inscribed into Fence refer – as its title suggests – to the structural elements of the house and its surroundings. In this way, the sculpture evokes a sense of the calm order and containment that many associate with the home environment. Furthermore, Hashmi conjures up lived experience through the repetition involved in the production process itself, a working method that has been described by historian Finbarr Barry Flood as a ‘performance of memory’ (Finbarr Barry Flood, ‘Memory in Material and Light’, in Galerie Jaeger Bucher 2011, p.15).
Zarina: Paper Houses, exhibition catalogue, Gallery Espace, New Delhi 2007, reproduced p.44.
Zarina Hashmi: Noor, exhibition catalogue, Galerie Jaeger Bucher, Paris 2011.
Allegra Pesenti, Zarina: Paper Like Skin, Los Angeles 2011.
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