Surrealism was a movement which began in the 1920s of writers and artists (including Salvador Dalí and René Magritte), who experimented with ways of unleashing the subconscious imagination
- What are the key points?
- Who are the main artists?
- How did surrealism progress?
- What do the experts say?
- How can surrealism be explained to kids?
- French poet André Breton launched this movement in Paris in 1924
- It became an international movement including British surrealism which formed in 1936
- They were strongly influenced by Sigmund Freud (the founder of psychoanalysis) and his theories about the unconscious
- The aim of surrealism was to reveal the unconscious and reconcile it with rational life
- Key artists involved in the movement were Salvador Dalí, Max Ernst, René Magritte and Joan Miró
- Two broad types of surrealism can be seen: the oneiric (dream-like imagery) and automatism (a process of making which unleashed the unconscious by drawing or writing without conscious thought)
- Some (such as Max Ernst) used new techniques such as frottage and collage to create unusual imagery
Watch former art student and Doctor Who actor Peter Capaldi explain surrealism in five minutes:
- See all surrealist works in Tate’s collection
- Or browse the selection of works in the slideshow below
Who are the main artists?
Salvador Dalì (b. 1904 – d. 1989)
Dalì was a Spanish surrealist who painted dream-like scenes in a realistic style. He often repeated symbols in his work including melting clocks (passing of time), ants (death, decay) and eggs (hope, rebirth). He didn’t just paint, he also worked in film, sculpture and photography.
- Lobster Telephone 1936 (a surrealist object which symbolises sex. Surrealists liked to remove objects from its expected context and create new meanings)
- Un Chien Andalou 1929 (a film made with fellow surrealist Luis Buñuel that features the infamous image of an eye being cut by a razor)
- Metamorphosis of Narcissus 1937 (a double image painting showing Dalì’s interest in illusions)
See Dalí’s work come to life in this film about Dalí’s collaboration with Disney.
Joan Miró (b. 1893 – d. 1983)
Joan Miró was a Spanish painter, who created imagery using automatic techniques. His style was child-like, simplifying familar things (such as animals, stars, body parts) into geometric shapes and abstract biomorphic forms. He used a limited colour palette which usually consisted of bold, primary colours.
- A Star Caresses the Breast of a Negress (Painting Poem) 1938 (a painting which uses a visual language to represent people and objects)
- Painting 1927 (Miro’s use of deep blue was deeply connected to the theme of dreams)
- Message from a Friend 1964 (this work shows how his imagery was often unclear)
Watch two of the curators of the 2011 Tate Modern exhibition Miró, Matthew Gale and Marko Daniel, select three of Miró’s artworks to explore up close.
Paul Nash (b.1889 – d.1946)
Paul Nash was a British surrealist and war artist who was most well-known for his landscape paintings. From 1928, he became particularly influenced by the work of Giorgio de Chirico because of his use of unexpected objects within mysterious landscapes.
- Landscape from a Dream 1936–8 (a symbolic painting set firmly within the setting of a British landscape)
- Totes Meer (Dead Sea) 1940–1 (this war-torn surrealist work was a response to seeing a wrecked aircraft at Cowley in Oxfordshire)
- Flight of the Magnolia 1944 (one of his late works which is very dream-like, depicting a magnolia blossom in flight)
In this short film, journalist Simon Grant explores the hidden emotion and love story behind Totes Meer.
26 October 2016 – 5 March 2017
This Tate Modern exhibition presents his major works from his early symbolist manner, through to the iconic works of the First World War, as well as his landscapes of the interwar period.
How did surrealism progress?
Around the globe
Political upheveal from World War Two spread surrealists around the globe (notably in Belgium, Britain and the former Czechoslavakia). They widely influencing art, literature and the cinema as well as social attitudes and behaviour. The British Surrealist group formed in 1936 with artist Paul Nash and critic Herbet Read among its founding members. Soon after forming, they organised the First International Surrealist Exhibition in London which attracted huge public attention.
Other British Surrealist artists in the group included Eileen Agar, John Armstrong, John Banting, Ithell Colquhoun, Conroy Maddox, E.L.T. Mesens, Julian Trevelyan. In 1947 the British group merged with the French one.
Watch a short film about Leonora Carrington, a British artist who became central in the surrealist circles of France and New York. Featuring rare archive footage, this film follows Carrington’s cousin and journalist, Joanna Moorhead, exploring the artist’s story.
Some surrealists migrated to America during World War Two. By the 1940s, the surrealist idea of revealing the unconscious greatly influenced a new movement, the abstract expressionists. They achieved the unconscious through abstraction using new techniques (rooted in automatism) rather than dream-like imagery.
In popular culture
Despite not directly referencing popular culture, surrealism has had a great amount of influence on literature, design and cinema. The interviews, films and articles below explore its impact.
In this short film, album graphic designer Storm Thorgerson discusses his love of Rene Magritte and the artist’s influence on his work.
I think I took away from Magritte a love of oddity or oddness.
The great collaborator
Read an interview with José Montes Baquer on his first impressions of Dalí when making a film with him in 1976.
Uncle Walt and Salvador
Roy Disney discusses Walt Disney and Dali’s working relationship and how they were both surrealists, fascinated with the theme of transformation.
The first pop star of painting
Artist Vincent Pécoil explores Dali’s profound influence on popular culture, from Vogue magazine cover and Chupa Chups sweet wrapper designs to his fascination with the world of cinema.
Lights, camera, … metamorphisis
British film scholar Ian Christie, discusses Dali’s lifelong obsession with film, including Un Chien Andalou 1929 and his dream sequence in Hitchcock’s Spellbound 1945.
What do the experts say?
These articles and conference recordings take an in depth look at surrealism.
Surrealism and film study day recordings
Watch specialists from the art and film worlds discuss Dali’s work in relation to the wider links between surrealism and film, in these video recordings of the 2007 Tate study day.
Becoming Machine: Surrealist Automatism and Some Contemporary Instances
This research article by David Lomas examines the history of automatism from the late nineteenth century to the present day, exploring the intersections between physiology, psychology, poetry and art.
Tate’s painting conservation studio examines Salvador Dalí’s Forgotten Horizon 1936
Get a closer look at Dalí’s Forgotten Horizon as the conservation team take us through infra red light and mircroscope analysis as a starting point for conserving paintings.
How can surrealism be explained to kids?
These blog posts, games and activites are a fun and simple way to introduce surrealism to kids, whether in the classroom or at home.
What is surrealism?
…and what has a lobster got to do with a telephone? This Tate Kids blog post answers these important questions and provides some surreal suggestions for artworks to create.
Who is Salvador Dali?
This homework help provides a quick insight into surrealism’s leading (and most eccentric) man.
Get them creating surreal characters and writing quirky stories with this ‘how to’ consequences game.
Digital Kit: Re-Imagining Landscapes
Inspire kids to turn Tate artworks into their own digital surreal world with this step by step Photoshop (or Paint) activity.