We are grateful to Natalie Adamson for her development of this project, and to Elizabeth Buhe and Bert Winther-Tamaki for their valuable contributions to the research. The Sam Francis Foundation in California provided advice, support and images, for all of which we are extremely appreciative.

Natalie Adamson would like to thank the anonymous peer reviewer, Elizabeth Buhe, Steven Harris, Suzanne Hudson, Susan Laxton, Michael Schreyach, Catherine Spencer, John Tain, Alex J. Taylor, Kim Timby and Bert Winther-Tamaki for their generous support and critical readings. For their willing assistance with the many archival leads and resources, her gratitude goes to the librarians at Special Collections, Getty Research Institute; Elizabeth Garver at the Harry Ransom Center, University of Texas at Austin; the Huntingdon Library; the Tate Archive; and especially to Debra Burchett-Lere, Beth Ann Whittaker-Williams and colleagues at the Sam Francis Foundation. The research and writing were accomplished with the invaluable aid of time granted by a Getty Research Fellowship (autumn 2015) and a Major Research Fellowship from the Leverhulme Trust (2016–18).

Elizabeth Buhe would like to thank Natalie Adamson for providing helpful advice on her essay. She would also like to thank Debra Burchett-Lere, Leila Elliott, Alex Taylor and Beth Ann Whittaker-Williams.

Bert Winther-Tamaki gratefully acknowledges the assistance of Natalie Adamson, Debra Burchett-Lere and Celia White in the preparation of his essay. Research for this project was conducted during a residency fellowship at the International Research Center for Japanese Studies (Nichibunken), Kyoto.

This project belongs to a series of In Focus studies commissioned as part of Refiguring American Art, a major research project generously supported by the Terra Foundation for American Art.

Authors
Dr Natalie Adamson, Reader, School of Art History, University of St Andrews
Dr Elizabeth Buhe, Postdoctoral Fellow, Smithsonian American Art Museum
Dr Bert Winther-Tamaki, Chair of Art History and Professor of Visual Studies, Department of Art History, University of California, Irvine

Series editor: Jennifer Mundy, Head of Art Historical Research, Tate
Commissioning editor: Alex J. Taylor, Terra Foundation Research Fellow in American Art, Tate
Project manager: Julia Bailey, Terra Foundation for American Art Research Project Manager, Tate
Project editor: Celia White, Senior Research Editor, Tate
Digital editor: Susannah Worth, Digital Editor (Research), Tate