Joseph Mallord William Turner, ‘The Decline of the Carthaginian Empire ...’ exhibited 1817
Joseph Mallord William Turner
The Decline of the Carthaginian Empire ... exhibited 1817
Tate

This hierarchy of genres, established by the French Royal Academy, was based on the notion of man as the measure of all things. Landscape and still life were the lowest because they did not involve human subject matter. History was highest because it dealt with the noblest events of human history and with religion.