The group was formed by artists Achille Funi, Mario Sironi, Carlo Carrá and others. It was officially launched in 1923 at a meeting in Milan, with Mussolini as one of the speakers. Mussolini was the founder of the Italian Fascist Party and in 1922 seized power to become dictator of Italy.
After being represented at the Venice Biennale of 1924 the group split and was reformed. The new Novecento Italiano staged its first group exhibition in Milan in 1926. The group supported fascism and its work became associated with the state propaganda department.