Sir Jacob Epstein, ‘Portrait of Iris Beerbohm Tree’ 1915
Sir Jacob Epstein
Portrait of Iris Beerbohm Tree 1915
Tate
© The estate of Sir Jacob Epstein

Patina can be created naturally by the oxidising effect of the atmosphere or weather, or artificially by the application of chemicals. Almost all bronze sculpture has been patinated one way or the other but Constantin Brancusi polished his bronzes to reveal the beautiful natural gold colour of the metal.