Biography

Edvard Munch ( MUUNK, Norwegian: [ˈɛdvɑʈ ˈmʊŋk] (listen); 12 December 1863 – 23 January 1944) was a Norwegian painter, whose best known work, The Scream, has become one of the most iconic images of world art.

His childhood was overshadowed by illness, bereavement and the dread of inheriting a mental condition that ran in the family. Studying at the Royal School of Art and Design in Kristiania (today’s Oslo), Munch began to live a bohemian life under the influence of nihilist Hans Jæger, who urged him to paint his own emotional and psychological state ('soul painting'). From this would presently emerge his distinctive style.

Travel brought new influences and new outlets. In Paris, he learned much from Paul Gauguin, Vincent van Gogh and Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, especially their use of colour. In Berlin, he met Swedish dramatist August Strindberg, whom he painted, as he embarked on his major canon The Frieze of Life, depicting a series of deeply-felt themes such as love, anxiety, jealousy and betrayal, steeped in atmosphere.

But it was back in Kristiania that his legendary work The Scream was conceived. According to Munch, he was out walking at sunset, when he ‘heard the enormous, infinite scream of nature’. That agonised face is widely identified with the angst of modern man. Between 1893 and 1910, he made two painted versions and two in pastels, as well as a number of prints. One of the pastels would eventually command the fourth highest nominal price paid for a painting at auction.

As his fame and wealth grew, his emotional state remained as insecure as ever. He briefly considered marriage, but could not commit himself. A breakdown in 1908 forced him to give up heavy drinking, and he was cheered by his increasing acceptance by the people of Kristiania and exposure in the city’s museums. His later years were spent working in peace and privacy. Although his works were banned in Nazi Germany, most of them survived World War II, ensuring him a secure legacy.

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Artworks

Film and audio

  • Listen

    Munch: The promise of modernity - part 1

    Curators, art historians and contemporary artists talk about different aspects of Edvard Munch's practice and its significance today, from painting, ...
  • Listen

    Munch: The promise of modernity - part 2

    Curators, art historians and contemporary artists talk about different aspects of Edvard Munch's practice and its significance today, from painting, ...
  • TateShots

    AK Dolven on Edvard Munch

    Norwegian artist AK Dolven pays hommage to her fellow countryman Edward Munch
  • TateShots

    Edvard Munch: The Modern Eye

    Tate Modern’s 2012 exhibition and how the artist’s fascination with new technologies influenced his paintings
  • Listen

    Poem of the Month: Adam Thorpe

    This month Adam Thorpe presents his poem on Edvard Munch’s The Sick Child, 1907, currently on display at Tate Modern.

Features

  • Tate Etc

    Inside the eye of the beholder: Edvard Munch II

    Michael F. Marmor

    In 1930, when Munch was 66 years old, an intraocular haemorrhage in his right eye affected his sight. For several ...
  • Art Term

    Oil paint

    Oil paint is form of a slow-drying paint that consists of particles of pigment suspended in a drying oil that ...
  • Art Term

    Degenerate art

    Degenerate art is the English translation of the German phrase Entartete Kunst which is the label the National Socialist (Nazi) ...
  • Art Term

    Expressionism

    Expressionism refers to art in which the image of reality is distorted in order to make it expressive of the ...
  • Tate Etc

    The soul laid bare: Edvard Munch at Tate Modern I

    Sue Prideaux

    The Norwegian artist is best known for his pictures of moody lovers and tortured souls. However, these were not merely ...

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