The principal sketch shows Hamburg. Turner pictures its Niederhafen or Lower Port from a westerly perspective (see Tate D30858; Turner Bequest CCCV 19a).
The other sketch, rendered with the book turned upside down, depicts Copenhagen University’s Rundetårn or Round Tower. This seventeenth century cylindrical tower was commissioned by King Christian IV as an astronomical observatory.1 A gilded rebus decorates the uppermost façade, transcribed by Turner as: ‘doctrinamet | dirige | [Hebrew Script] | in | [Icon] | 16 [Icon] 42’. Written in Latin and Hebrew with icons of a sword, crown and heart, the rebus translates as ‘Let the Lord guide learning and justice in the heart of Christian IV, crowned 1642’.2
- townscapes / man-made features(21,691)