Kaohsiung Museum of Fine Arts (Kaohsiung, Taiwan): Nude: art from the Tate collection
The main drawing is the most developed of Turner’s erotic subjects, and one of ‘very few pieces ... to exist outside the protective covers of a sketchbook’, as Ian Warrell has noted.1 He observes that it is difficult to compare with anything else in the Turner Bequest, and ‘cannot automatically be assumed’ to be by Turner,2 although it can be likened to the ‘Old Master’-like chalk and ink drawings on the blue paper of the Calais Pier sketchbook, used to work out compositions for paintings around the turn of the century (Tate; Turner Bequest LXXXI);3 see Andrew Wilton’s ‘History Painting c.1799–1807’ section in the present catalogue. Former Tate registrar and Turner scholar Andrew Loukes suggested Charles Reuben Ryley (c.1752–1798), examples of whose work Turner owned, as an alternative artist; the possible identity of the male figure here as a satyr ‘with pointed ears and stumpy tail’ might link it to Ryley’s work on classical subjects.4
Nevertheless, the present drawing is not inherently unlikely to be by Turner, and Warrell has noted the woman’s ‘long limbs’ typical of Turner’s paintings, and the similar ‘broad male back’5 of Mercury in the 1811 painting Mercury and Herse (private collection).6 Compare the nymphs and satyrs of about 1810 in Turner’s Academy Auditing sketchbook (Tate; Turner Bequest CCX a); the Liber Studiorum includes several classical love stories designed in line and brown wash (see for example Tate D08144, D08166 and D08170; Turner Bequest CXVII P, CXVIII L, P), and were a possible ‘trigger for the more explicit incidents depicted here’,7 as Warrell has observed. See also Venus and Adonis, a painting of about 1803–5 (private collection)8 where the goddess’s body lies exposed but both protagonists’ features are hidden as they face each other.9 The subsidiary drawing, focusing on the genitals among a dynamic mass of flailing limbs, is comparable for instance to Tate D08342 (Turner Bequest CXXII 37) in the Finance sketchbook and Tate D27447 (Turner Bequest CCLXXIX a 45a) in the later Life Class (1) book.10
Warrell 2003, p.18.
See Wilton 1987, p.84, Chumbley and Warrell 1989, p.28, and Upstone 2001, p.152.
Warrell 2003, p.19, citing as an example a subject from a ‘Sketchbook of historical subjects’ reproduced in David Blayney Brown and Rosalind Mallord Turner, Turner’s House, Gallery and Library, exhibition catalogue, Tate Britain, London, 2001, fig.13 (colour); see also Upstone 2001, p.152, and Shanes 2016, pp.484–5 note 7.
Warrell 2003, p.19.
Martin Butlin and Evelyn Joll, The Paintings of J.M.W. Turner, revised ed., New Haven and London 1984, pp.80–2 no.114, pl.122 (colour).
Warrell 2012, p.78.
Butlin and Joll 1984, pp.113–15 no.150, pl.49 (colour).
See also Wilton 1987, p.84, Wilton 2006, p.85, and Warrell 2012, p.78.
See Warrell 2003, p.19 for these and other examples.
A.J. Finberg, A Complete Inventory of the Drawings of the Turner Bequest, London 1909.
See Warrell 2003, p.12.
Ibid., p.19, and Warrell 2012, p.78.
Finberg 1909, II, pp.1211–14, CCCLXV 1–38.
MS pencil notes in copy of Finberg 1909 used mainly by C.F. Bell (died 1966), Prints and Drawings Room, Tate Britain, II, p.1214.
MS pencil notes in copy of Finberg 1909 formerly in curatorial use at the British Museum, Prints and Drawings Room, Tate Britain, II, p.1214.
Antony Griffiths and Reginald Williams, The Department of Prints and Drawings in the British Museum: User’s Guide, London 1987, p.162; see also Warrell 2003, p.19.
Warrell 2003, p.19.
Falk 1938, p.121.