We are grateful to Michael Schreyach for his development of this project, and to James Finch and Michael Leja for their valuable contributions.

Michael Schreyach would like to thank Heidi Colsman-Freyberger for essential research support, and the anonymous peer reviewer for comments on this essay.

This project belongs to a series of In Focus studies commissioned as part of Refiguring American Art, a major research project generously supported by the Terra Foundation for American Art.

Michael Schreyach, Associate Professor, Art and Art History, Trinity University, San Antonio
Michael Leja, James and Nan Wagner Farquhar Professor of the History of Art, University of Pennsylvania
James Finch, Curatorial Assistant – Collections, Royal Academy of Arts, London

Series editor: Jennifer Mundy, Head of Art Historical Research, Tate
Commissioning editor: Alex J. Taylor, Terra Foundation Research Fellow in American Art, Tate
Project manager: Julia Bailey, Terra Foundation for American Art Research Project Manager, Tate
Project editor: Celia White, Collection Research Editor, Tate
Digital editor: Susannah Worth, Digital Editor (Research), Tate

ISBN 978-1-84976-543-5