Joseph Mallord William Turner

Brighton Beach, with the Chain Pier in the Distance, from the West

c.1827, 1843

Not on display

Joseph Mallord William Turner 1775–1851
Oil paint on canvas
Support: 913 × 1219 × 21 mm
frame: 1070 × 1376 × 85 mm
Accepted by the nation as part of the Turner Bequest 1856

Display caption

The sea and sky were both worked in first with unmodified oil paint. The sky was developed with thin broken washes of opaque paint, called scumbles. Turner worked up the buildings with paint applied with a palette knife, then smoothed it with a brush. Elsewhere he thinned the paint considerably, probably with oil of turpentine. This evaporates to give matte paint, necessarily in a thin layer, which contrasts with the naturally glossier unthinned paint used to make impasto (texture). The process took several days, since the impasted paint overlies partially-dried paint.

Years later, the sky was damaged in Turner’s studio, perhaps by water or even rain, and some paint flaked off. Turner reworked the sky with bodied paint – that is, paint that retains impasto, perhaps a megilp – using yellow barium chromate, not available before 1843. He used the end of his brush to enliven the surface, leaving characteristic straight marks in the paint.

Gallery label, February 2010

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Catalogue entry

[from] Nos. 453–86: Late Unfinished Sea Pieces, c. 1830–45

THERE are two main problems about this group of works. The first is the question of dating: the dates adopted here are highly tentative and are based on the supposition that there is a logical progression from a more substantial, three-dimensional style to one that is more impressionistic and less solid, together with a feeling that Turner's colouring was perhaps at its strongest from the early to the mid 1830s. However, as will be noted, the compilers do not always agree on even the tentative datings given here. In any case, what may look like a less three-dimensional picture may in fact be merely a less finished picture.

The second problem is that of provenance and authenticity, in particular as it concerns smaller pictures outside the Turner Bequest, Nos. 474–84, together with the somewhat similar works no longer accepted as genuine, Nos. 555–8. That some such unfinished works escaped the Turner Bequest is certain, and a foundation is provided by those works that can be definitely or tentatively traced to John Pound, the son by her first marriage of Mrs Booth, Turner's mistress and housekeeper. In reviews of our first edition, exception was taken to some of our attributions by Luke Herrmann (Nos. 475, 478 and 484) and Jerrold Ziff (Nos. 480 and 481); interestingly, they do not agree. Of the works they doubt, No. 478 seems definitely to have been in the Pound sale at Christie's in 1865, while Nos. 480, 481 and 484 bear labels or are said to come from the Pound family.

However, one should never let an apparently sound provenance stand in the way of one's judgment based on the visual evidence, and in this case there is one further element, the fact that, from 1848, for apparently the only time in his life, Turner employed an assistant, Francis Sherrell. According to Bernard Falk (1938, p. 213), whose reference is based on an obituary in the Isle of Thanet Gazette for 23 September 1916, Turner gave Sherrell lessons in return for various services such as stretching his canvases and running errands; John Gage (1969, p. 171) suggests that Sherrell may also have cleaned some of the pictures in Turner's studio at the instigation of the dealer Thomas Griffith, who was active in trying to obtain sales for Turner at this time. Nothing further seems to be known about Sherrell save that he died at Thanet in 1916. It is perhaps an unworthy suspicion to suggest that he, more than anybody else, would have been in a position to imitate Turner's late style and that such imitations could have been left in Turner's studio and acquired by the Pound family.

Another suspicious circumstance is that, although Turner tended to work on standard sizes of canvas, only a few of those of this group of pictures that are outside the Turner Bequest can be matched with works in the Bequest: No. 472, near enough Turner's standard three feet by four feet; No. 474, much the same size as Nos. 457 [N02881] and 458 [N02882]; Nos. 475, 482, and 556a, close to No. 459 [N05495]; and Nos. 483 and 484, the same size as Nos. 485 [D36675] and 486.

Lit. Rothenstein and Butlin 1964, p. 62; Herrmann 1978, p. 773; Wilton 1979, p. 224; Ziff 1980, p. 167.

454. [N01986] Hastings c. 1830–35


Canvas, 35 1/2 × 48 (91 × 122)

Coll. Turner Bequest 1856; transferred to the Tate Gallery 1906.

Exh. Amsterdam, Berne, Paris, Brussels, Liege (32), Venice and Rome (36) 1947–8; on loan to the National Gallery of Scotland 1964–8; Edinburgh 1968 (9); R.A. 1974–5 (493).

Lit. Rothenstein 1949, p. 12, colour pl. 6.

A variation of the theme of The Chain Pier, Brighton (Nos. 286 [N02064] and 291 [T03886]) but more worked up in sea and sky, paralleling the development seen in Staffa—Fingal's Cave, exhibited in 1832, in the subservience of solid forms to the forces of nature (see No. 347). The sky seems to represent a later stage in the development of the composition than the rest of the picture.

For MacColl this is ‘Perhaps of the same date as “The New Moon”’, exhibited in 1840 (No. 386 [N00526]), but stylistically it seems earlier, as had already been suggested by Finberg, who associated it with some draft verses about

‘The first pale Star of Eve ere Twylight comes’ in the ‘Worcester and Shrewsbury’ sketchbook of c. 1829–30 (CCXXXIX-70). It is just possible that the subject was suggested by Etty's Venus, the Evening Star, exhibited at the R.A. in 1828, but this was a figure subject. More likely is the influence of Bonington, as in the case of the comparable painting exhibited in 1830, Calais Sands (No. 334, q.v.).

Published in:
Martin Butlin and Evelyn Joll, The Paintings of J.M.W. Turner, revised ed., New Haven and London 1984

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